Objective—To evaluate efficacy and adverse effects of leflunomide for the treatment of naturally occurring immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—14 dogs with cytologically confirmed IMPA.
Procedures—Medical records were used to identify dogs with a diagnosis of IMPA that were treated with leflunomide. Signalment, radiographic findings, laboratory data, dosage of leflunomide, treatment duration, treatment response, and occurrence of adverse effects were determined from medical records.
Results—Mean ± SD initial dosage of leflunomide was 3.0 ± 0.5 mg/kg (1.4 ± 0.2 mg/lb) PO once daily. Treatment duration for the initial starting dosage ranged from 1 to 6 weeks. Of the 14 dogs treated with leflunomide, 8 had complete resolution of clinical signs of IMPA initially, 5 had partial response to treatment, and 1 had minimal response to treatment. Adverse effects from treatment with leflunomide were not observed during the treatment period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of leflunomide was a safe and effective alternative to oral administration of corticosteroids for treatment of IMPA in dogs. On the basis of findings in this study, a starting dosage for leflunomide of 3 to 4 mg/kg (1.4 to 1.8 mg/lb) PO once daily for at least 6 weeks before making dose adjustments is recommended. Dose adjustments should be based on cytologic evaluation of synovial fluid and clinical signs of IMPA. Hematologic variables, serum biochemical analysis results, and clinical signs of IMPA should be monitored for evidence of adverse effects to treatment with leflunomide.
Objective—To determine localization of tartrate-resistant
acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K in ruptured
and healthy cranial cruciate ligaments (CCL) in
Animals—30 dogs with ruptured CCL, 8 aged dogs
without ruptured CCL, and 9 young dogs without ruptured
Procedure—The CCL was examined histologically
and cells containing TRAP and cathepsin K were identified
histochemically and immunohistochemically,
Results—Cathepsin K and TRAP were detected within
the same cells, principally within the epiligamentous
region and to a lesser extent in the core region
of ruptured CCL. Numbers of cells containing TRAP
and cathepsin K were significantly greater in ruptured
CCL, compared with CCL from young or aged dogs,
and numbers of such cells were greater in CCL from
aged dogs, compared with those of young dogs. In
aged dogs, small numbers of cells containing TRAP
and cathepsin K were seen in intact CCL associated
with ligament fascicles in which there was chondroid
transformation of ligament fibroblasts and disruption
of the extracellular matrix.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Ruptured
CCL contain greater numbers of cells with the proteinases
TRAP and cathepsin K than CCL from
healthy, young, or aged dogs. Results suggest that
cell-signaling pathways that regulate expression of
these proteinases may form part of the mechanism
that leads to upregulation of collagenolytic ligament
remodeling and progressive structural failure of the
CCL over time. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1279–1284).
To characterize elements of employment, professional success, and personal life for American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) diplomates and identify elements of practice that may serve as barriers to work-life balance or affect men and women differently.
836 ACVS diplomates.
An 81-item questionnaire was sent to 1,450 ACVS diplomates in 2015 via email and conducted by means of an online platform. Responses were analyzed to identify associations among selected variables.
The survey response rate was 58% (836/1,450). The median age category among respondents was 41 to 45 years. The ratio of male to female diplomates was equivalent among those < 40 years old. Respondents in small animal private practice worked the fewest number of hours; those in equine or large animal private practice worked the most and had the most on-call responsibility. Women were more likely than men to be employed in academia. In both private practice and academia, respondents in small animal practice earned more than did those in equine or large animal practice, and women earned less than did men, even after adjustment for relevant covariates. Women were less likely than men to be practice owners or to hold a prestigious academic title and rank. Perceptions about the effect of gender in the workplace differed between men and women.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings suggested that the veterinary surgical profession is demanding for both genders, although increased flexibility in certain areas may improve work-life balance.
To characterize objective and subjective elements of the personal lives of American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) diplomates and identify elements of personal life associated with professional life or career success.
836 ACVS diplomates.
An 81-item questionnaire was sent to 1,450 diplomates in 2015 via email and conducted by means of an online platform. Responses were analyzed to summarize trends and identify associations among selected variables.
Men were more likely than women to be married or in a domestic partnership (88% vs 68%, respectively) and to have children (77% vs 47%). Among women but not men, respondents in large animal practice were less likely than were those in small animal practice to be represented in these categories. Women had children later in their career than did men and indicated that their stage of training played an important role in family planning. Respondents with children worked significantly fewer hours than did those without children, with a greater reduction in hours for women versus men (6.0 vs 3.1 hours, respectively). Women were more likely to require external childcare services than were men. Women were more likely to report that having children had negatively impacted their professional lives. No negative associations between measures of professional success (eg, advancement or personal income) and parenthood were identified.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Family demographics differed between male and female ACVS diplomates, yet no objective impact on career success was identified. Work-life balance may play an important role in recruitment, retention, and job satisfaction of veterinary surgeons.
A 7-year-old female blue crane (Anthropoides paradiseus) was initially evaluated after it had suddenly developed signs of respiratory distress following aspiration of a rock. Emergency tracheotomy had been performed, and the rock had been removed from the proximal cervical portion of the trachea. Fifty-one days later, the clinical signs had returned and the crane was reevaluated.
On reevaluation, no obvious external abnormalities were appreciated at the previous surgical site and no discharge was observed from the glottis. Computed tomography and tracheoscopy revealed marked tracheal stenosis and architectural collapse of the trachea at the previous surgery site.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Tracheal resection and anastomosis was performed to remove the stenotic tracheal segment. Histologic examination of the resected tracheal segment revealed pyogranulomas with intralesional coccobacilli, fungal hyphae consistent with Aspergillus spp, possible parasitic ova, and features suggestive of mild to moderate heterophilic and lymphoplasmacytic tracheitis. The crane was treated with piroxicam, ceftiofur crystalline free acid, terbinafine, and itraconazole. At a follow-up examination 12 weeks later, no abnormalities were appreciated, and the surgical site had completely healed.
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful tracheal resection and anastomosis in a bird of the order Gruiformes. The surgical approach used for the blue crane may be useful for removal of tracheal foreign bodies in this and other long-necked avian species.
To evaluate outcomes of dogs with parathyroid carcinoma (PTC) treated by surgical excision and to describe the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia, degree of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, duration of calcium supplementation, and survival time
100 client-owned dogs with PTC admitted to academic, referral veterinary institutions.
In a retrospective multi-institutional study, medical records of dogs undergoing surgical excision of PTC between 2010 to 2019 were reviewed. Signalment, relevant medical history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic testing, imaging, surgical findings, intraoperative complications, histologic examination, and survival time were recorded.
100 dogs with PTC were included, and 96 dogs had clinical or incidental hypercalcemia. Common clinical signs included polyuria (44%), polydipsia (43%), hind limb paresis (22%), lethargy (21%), and hyporexia (20%). Cervical ultrasonography detected a parathyroid nodule in 91 of 91 dogs, with a single nodule in 70.3% (64/91), 2 nodules in 25.3% (23/91), and ≥ 3 nodules in 4 (4/91)% of dogs. Hypercalcemia resolved in 89 of 96 dogs within 7 days after surgery. Thirty-four percent of dogs developed hypocalcemia, on the basis of individual analyzer ranges, within 1 week after surgery. One dog had metastatic PTC to the prescapular lymph node, and 3 dogs were euthanized for refractory postoperative hypocalcemia. Estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 84%, 65%, and 51% respectively, with a median survival time of 2 years.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Excision of PTC results in resolution of hypercalcemia and excellent long-term tumor control. Surgical excision of PTC is recommended because of resolution of hypercalcemia and a good long-term prognosis. Future prospective studies and long-term follow-up are needed to further assess primary tumor recurrence, metastasis, and incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia.