A 10-year-old castrated male Cocker Spaniel–Maltese mix was brought to the William B. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for evaluation of a possible fractured tooth. The dog had injured the left maxillary first incisor 1 month before while chewing on a rawhide but had not had any signs of oral discomfort since then. Pertinent medical history included well-controlled epilepsy treated with phenobarbital (1.5 mg/kg [0.68 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). Pertinent dental history included extraction of the right maxillary third incisor because of a root fracture 3 years previously.
A 4-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever was brought to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for follow-up radiography following root canal treatment of the right maxillary and right mandibular canine teeth 4 months previously. The dog had had a complicated crown-root fracture of the right maxillary canine tooth and a complicated crown fracture of the right mandibular canine tooth of unknown duration; in both teeth, the pulp was not vital. Root canal treatment was performed by means of a hand-filing, crown-down technique1; the canals were obturated with a combination of a solid gutta-percha core
A 7-year-old 15.9-kg (35-lb) castrated male Cocker Spaniel was referred to the dentistry and oral surgery service of a veterinary teaching hospital for evaluation of a mass on the caudal aspect of the right mandible. The clients first noted the mass approximately 3 weeks prior to referral. Clinical manifestations associated with the mass included halitosis; the patient was reported to have no other clinical signs. The pertinent medical history was unremarkable except for mitral valve disease with no overt clinical signs. The pertinent dental history consisted of extraction of the right mandibular fourth premolar and second
A 10-year-old 5.4-kg (11.9-lb) spayed female Miniature Poodle was evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of a nonhealing, extraoral draining tract that was first noted as a swelling on the dorsum of the nose 5 months prior to referral. Previous treatments implemented by the referring veterinarian included extractions of selected premolar teeth and courses of orally administered enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin. Despite ongoing antimicrobial treatment, the swelling had progressed to a persistent draining tract.
Pertinent physical examination findings included a percutaneous draining tract approximately 2 mm in diameter located on the dorsal aspect of the
A 12-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was referred for evaluation of a recurrent gingival mass of 1-month's duration in the maxillary incisive region. A mass was marginally excised from the same site by the referring veterinarian 2 years prior to this examination, but histologic evaluation was not performed. A general physical examination did not reveal any clinically important abnormalities, and results of routine hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were unremarkable. A complete oral examination, including periodontal probing and charting, was performed. An irregular, exophytic, 16 × 15 × 10-mm gingival mass extended from the right
A 1-year-old 16.7-kg (36.7-lb) sexually intact female Bull Terrier was referred to the dentistry and oral surgery service of a veterinary teaching hospital for evaluation of a left maxillary canine tooth with discoloration of unknown duration. The owner reported that the dog was adopted at 4 months of age; since that time, the medical history was unremarkable, with no known history of trauma.
A general physical examination did not reveal any clinically important abnormalities, and results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis were within the respective reference ranges. Examination of the oral cavity revealed
A 2.5-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated at the dentistry and oral surgery service of a veterinary teaching hospital because of an oral mass located in the right maxillary canine tooth region that had been present since birth. Six months prior to this examination, the referring veterinarian surgically debulked the mass and extracted the right maxillary canine tooth, and tissue samples were submitted for histologic examination. Findings included the presence of disorganized odontogenic epithelium intermixed with stroma; minimal nuclear variation was reported. Ameloblastic fibroma was diagnosed on the basis of the predominant epithelial
An 11-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was referred to the oncology service at the Cornell University Hospital for Animals for evaluation and treatment of a nasal tumor. Three weeks earlier, the dog had a single episode of epistaxis and had been evaluated at a different referral facility. Computed tomography of the head was performed, revealing a right-sided nasal mass with possible invasion into the cribriform plate. Histopathologic findings from an incisional biopsy were consistent with nasal carcinoma. Carprofen (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was prescribed. Between the time of initial diagnosis and
A 10-year-old castrated male Chesapeake Bay Retriever was evaluated at the Community Practice and Dentistry and Oral Surgery Services of the Cornell University Hospital for Animals for preanesthetic assessment and routine periodontal treatment, respectively. The patient had a history of skin masses that had been previously investigated and had been determined to be benign. The dog also had a history of a grade II of VI left-sided apical systolic murmur of several years' duration, with no reported signs of congestive heart failure. The dental history included 2 prior preventive periodontal treatments with no dental extractions.
To assess the frequency of clinical and radiographic evidence of inflammation (ie, evidence of inflammation) associated with retained tooth root fragments (RTRFs) in dogs and to determine whether evidence of inflammation was affected by RTRF length and position within the alveolar bone.
148 RTRFs in 66 dogs.
For each dog, demographic information was recorded, and full-mouth radiographs were obtained and reviewed for RTRFs. For each RTRF, the length of the fragment was measured on intraoral radiographic images, and its location and position relative to the alveolar bone margin were recorded. The presence or absence of evidence of inflammation in association with each RTRF was also recorded. Descriptive data were generated. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors associated with evidence of inflammation around RTRFs.
81 of 148 (54.7%) RTRFs had evidence of inflammation. For every 1-mm increase in RTRF length, the odds of inflammation increased by 17% (OR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.34; P = 0.009). Odds of inflammation for RTRFs that protruded from the alveolar bone margin were 2.98 (95% CI, 1.02 to 8.72; P = 0.046) and 7.58 (95% CI, 1.98 to 29.08; P = 0.001) times those for RTRFs that were buried and level with the alveolar bone margin, respectively. Tooth root fragment length was a poor predictor of inflammation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that most RTRFs were associated with evidence of inflammation and supported the current recommendation for extraction of RTRFs whenever feasible.