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  • Author or Editor: Sanna M. Gough x
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To determine the sodium correction factor for clinical use in hyperglycemic diabetic dogs.


Retrospective analysis of 76 hospitalization episodes from 67 different dogs presenting to the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital between January 1, 2015, and January 1, 2023.


For each hospitalization episode, paired blood sodium and glucose concentration measurements were recorded from the time of presentation until glucose concentration was ≤ 201 mg/dL. Therapies administered, primary diagnosis, and concurrent diseases were also recorded for each episode. A linear mixed model was used to determine the sodium correction factor per 100-mg/dL increase in glucose. Piecewise linear mixed models were also constructed for blood glucose measurements ≤ 400 mg/dL and > 400 mg/dL to explore potential correction factor differences between low and high glucose concentrations.


A sodium correction factor of a 1.6-mEq/L (95% CI, 1.3 to 1.9 mEq/L) decrease in sodium concentration per 100-mg/dL increase in blood glucose concentration was calculated. Differences in the correction factor between conditions of low and high glucose concentrations could not be determined due to a small sample size of blood glucose values > 400 mg/dL. Most dogs received similar treatments throughout the study period, including balanced isotonic crystalloids (97% [74/76]), electrolyte supplementation (84% [64/76]), and regular insulin (97% [74/76]). Almost all patients (93% [71/76]) had 1 or more concurrent diseases.


A sodium correction factor of 1.6 mEq/L (decrease in sodium per 100-mg/dL increase in glucose) is recommended for clinical use in hyperglycemic diabetic dogs.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association