OBJECTIVE To compare morphology of the ciliary cleft (CC) region in dogs after topical administration of latanoprost, pilocarpine, or a combination of latanoprost and pilocarpine.
ANIMALS 6 Beagles.
PROCEDURES A prospective 4-phase crossover study with washout periods was performed. Latanoprost (phase L), pilocarpine (phase P), pilocarpine followed by latanoprost (phase PL), and latanoprost followed by pilocarpine (phase LP) were administered to the right eye. Artificial tears were administered to the left eye (control eye). For each phase, pupil diameter and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured and ultrasonographic biomicroscopy was performed 2 hours after topical treatment. Angle opening distance (AOD), ciliary cleft width (CCW), ciliary cleft length (CCL), and ciliary cleft area (CCA) were evaluated.
RESULTS All treated eyes had marked miosis without significant differences in pupil diameter among phases. Significant IOP reductions were detected for all phases, except phase P. The AOD and CCA were significantly increased in all phases for treated eyes, compared with results for control eyes. The CCW was significantly increased in phases P, PL, and LP; CCL was significantly increased in phases PL and LP. Comparison of treated eyes among phases revealed that CCW differed significantly between phases L and P and between phases L and PL.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prostaglandin-mediated and cholinergic-mediated miosis caused variations in CC configurations. When latanoprost and pilocarpine were used in combination, the first drug administered determined the cleft morphology, which was not fully reversed by the second drug. The CC morphology did not fully explain IOP reductions.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of peribulbar anesthesia (sub-Tenon injection of lidocaine hydrochloride) on akinesia of extraocular muscles, mydriasis, and intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification.
Animals—14 Beagles with ophthalmically normal eyes.
Procedures—A blinded randomized controlled trial was performed. Dogs were anesthetized and assigned to 2 treatments: concurrent sub-Tenon injection of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution (2 mL) and IV injection of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.02 mL/kg; lidocaine group [n = 7]) or concurrent sub-Tenon injection of saline solution (2 mL) and IV injection of 0.2 mg of atracurium/kg (0.02 mL/kg; control group ). Pupils were dilated by topical application of a combined tropicamide and phenylephrine ophthalmic solution. Ten minutes after the injections, pupil diameter was measured and phacoemulsification was performed. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was used to evaluate intraoperative pain. Subjective pain scores were recorded during the postoperative period.
Results—Akinesia was induced and maintained throughout the surgery in all eyes. Mean ± SD pupil diameter was significantly greater in the lidocaine group (13.7 ± 0.7 mm) than in the control group (12.2 ± 0.8 mm). Isoflurane requirements were significantly lower in the lidocaine group than the control group. However, postoperative pain scores were not significantly different between the groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sub-Tenon injection of lidocaine was an effective method for inducing akinesia of extraocular muscles, mydriasis, and intraoperative analgesia for phacoemulsification in dogs. Therefore, this could be another option for surgical field exposure and pain management during phacoemulsification in dogs.