Objective—To determine sources and amounts of
variation in a kinetics ELISA (KELA) and results of culture
of fecal samples for Mycobacterium avium subsp
paratuberculosis (MAP) in repeated tests of individual
Animals—112 cows on 6 commercial dairy farms in
Procedure—A nonrandom longitudinal study was
conducted from January 2001 to March 2002. A KELA
was performed monthly, and MAP culture was performed
bimonthly. Cow- and herd-level data were collected.
The KELA and culture results were analyzed by
use of models that corrected for clustering within
herds and repeated measures on cows.
Results—Cows of second or higher lactation had
increased KELA values, compared with values for
first-lactation cows. Cows had lowest KELA values
during the first 15 days in milk; KELA values increased
until 60 days in milk and then stabilized. Moderate
and heavy shedders had significantly higher KELA values
than culture-negative cows, and KELA values of
shedders progressively increased over time. On average,
the KELA value was significantly increased 132
days after a cow was first detected to be a moderate
shedder and 236 days after a cow was first detected
to be a low shedder.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis suggests
that KELA results vary on a cow-level on the
basis of lactation number and stage of lactation. High
KELA values indicate heavy fecal shedding, but the
KELA is not useful in identifying low and moderate
shedders that can require up to 236 days to have a
significant increase in KELA value. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine the effect of nonthermal plasma on Staphylococcus aureus, fibroblasts in monolayer culture, and clean and contaminated skin explants.
Sample Population—Normal skin from euthanized horses.
Procedures—S aureus organisms were plated and treated with nonthermal plasma followed by bacterial culture to assess viability. Fibroblasts in monolayer culture and the epidermal and dermal surfaces of clean and S aureus–contaminated skin explants were treated. The effects of distance and duration on the response to treatment were compared.
Results—Compared with controls, treatment with nonthermal plasma resulted in significantly decreased bacterial growth and significantly inhibited survival of fibroblasts in monolayer culture. When epidermal and dermal surfaces of skin explants were treated, there was no effect on production of normal fibroblasts during explant culture, except when extended exposure times of ≥ 2 minutes were used. Treatment with nonthermal plasma resulted in significantly lower bacterial counts after 24 hours of culture of S aureus–contaminated epidermis but not of dermis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nonthermal plasma resulted in bacterial decontamination of agar and epithelium; negative effects on fibroblasts in monolayer; and no negative effects on skin explants, except at long exposure times. Use of nonthermal plasma appears safe for treatment of epithelialized surfaces, may be safe for granulating wounds, and results in decontamination of S aureus. Investigations on the effects that nonthermal plasma may have on patient tissues are indicated with a clinically applicable delivery device.
Case Description—An 8-month-old koi (Cyprinus carpio) fish was examined at the animal hospital at Seoul National University for anal obstruction.
Clinical Findings—The affected fish was lethargic and anorexic, appeared depressed, and had a nodular obstruction at the anus. A biopsy specimen from the anal mass was submitted for histologic examination, which revealed a number of protozoa. On the basis of the morphological characteristics of the spores and the location of the plasmodia (ie, vegetative form of the parasite), a diagnosis of a cyst containing Thelohanellus kitauei was made. Thelohanellus kitauei is a protozoan parasite that affects freshwater fish by producing cyst-like tumors that may cause intestinal obstruction. Thelohanellus kitauei infection with cystic disease has been reported to affect Cyprinus spp worldwide.
Treatment and Outcome—The cyst was removed surgically. After surgery, low-concentration tricaine methanesulfonate immersion was used for sedation and antimicrobial treatment was administered. The surgical wound healed completely, and the fish was clinically normal 14 months after surgery.
Clinical Relevance—The successful outcome in this fish suggested that surgical removal may be a viable option for treatment of T kitauei infection in koi fish. The results of morphological analyses provided basic information on the relationships between tissue tropism and Thelohanellus spp.
Objective—To evaluate sensitivity of microbial culture
of pooled fecal samples for detection of
Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP)
in large dairy herds and assess the use of the method
for estimation of MAP prevalence.
Animals—1,740 lactating cows from 29 dairy herds
Procedure—Serum from each cow was tested by
use of a commercial ELISA kit. Individual fecal samples
were cultured and used to create pooled fecal
samples (10 randomly selected fecal samples/pool; 6
pooled samples/herd). Sensitivity of MAP detection
was compared between Herrold's egg yolk (HEY) agar
and a new liquid culture method. Bayesian methods
were used to estimate true prevalence of MAP-infected
cows and herd sensitivity.
Results—Estimated sensitivity for pooled fecal
samples among all herds was 0.69 (25 culture-positive
pools/36 pools that were MAP positive).
Sensitivity increased as the number of culture-positive
samples in a pool increased. The HEY agar
method detected more infected cows than the liquid
culture method but had lower sensitivity for
pooled fecal samples. Prevalence of MAP-infected
cows was estimated to be 4% (95% probability
interval, 2% to 6%) on the basis of culture of
pooled fecal samples. Herd-level sensitivity estimate
ranged from 90% to 100% and was dependent
on prevalence in the population and the sensitivity
for culture of pooled fecal samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of pooled
fecal samples from 10 cows was a cost-effective tool
for herd screening and may provide a good estimate
of the percentage of MAP-infected cows in dairy
herds with a low prevalence of MAP. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic effects of intracameral lidocaine hydrochloride injection in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification.
Animals—12 healthy Beagles with healthy eyes.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 intracameral injections: 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution (0.3 mL) or an equivalent amount of balanced salt solution (BSS). All dogs were treated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IV) and cefazolin (30 mg/kg, IV), and tropicamide drops were topically applied to the eyes. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. The initial end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.2%. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, esophageal temperature, inspired and end-tidal isoflurane concentrations, and oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 minutes. The allocated agent was injected intracamerally after aspiration of the same volume of aqueous humor. Ten minutes after injection, phacoemulsification was performed. After surgery began, the isoflurane concentration was adjusted according to heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Pain scores were recorded before surgery and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 hours after extubation.
Results—Isoflurane requirements were significantly higher in the BSS group than in the lidocaine group. Mean ± SD time to administration of supplementary analgesia was significantly shorter in the BSS group (1.4 ± 1.2 hours) than in the lidocaine group (4.9 ± 1.2 hours).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intracameral lidocaine injection had significant analgesic effects in dogs undergoing cataract surgery. Results of this study suggest the value of intracameral lidocaine injection as an analgesic for intraocular surgery in dogs.
Objective—To develop a method to experimentally
induce Borrelia burgdorferi infection in young adult
Animals—22 healthy Beagles.
Procedure—All dogs were verified to be free of borreliosis.
Twenty 6-month-old dogs were exposed to
Borrelia burgdorferi-infected adult ticks and treated
with dexamethasone for 5 consecutive days. Two
dogs not exposed to ticks were treated with dexamethasone
and served as negative-control dogs.
Clinical signs, results of microbial culture and polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) testing, immunologic
responses, and gross and histologic lesions were
evaluated 9 months after tick exposure.
Results—Predominant clinical signs were episodic
pyrexia and lameness in 12 of 20 dogs. Infection with
B burgdorferi was detected in microbial cultures of
skin biopsy specimens and various tissues obtained
during necropsy in 19 of 20 dogs and in all 20 dogs by
use of a PCR assay. All 20 exposed dogs seroconverted
and developed chronic nonsuppurative arthritis.
Three dogs also developed mild focal meningitis,
1 dog developed mild focal encephalitis, and 18 dogs
developed perineuritis or rare neuritis. Control dogs
were seronegative, had negative results for microbial
culture and PCR testing, and did not develop lesions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of this
technique successfully induced borreliosis in young
dogs. Dogs with experimentally induced borreliosis
may be useful in evaluating vaccines, chemotherapeutic
agents, and the pathogenesis of borreliosisinduced
arthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1104–1112)