Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for

  • Author or Editor: Sandee M. Hartsfield x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary

Twelve healthy dogs were used to determine the cardiorespiratory effects of iv administered ketamine (10 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg). Half the dogs received a ketamine-midazolam combination (k-m) as a bolus over 30 seconds and the other half received the k-m as an infusion over 15 minutes. Induction of anesthesia by use of k-m was good in all dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination as a bolus or infusion induced minimal cardiorespiratory effects, except for significant (P < 0.05) increases in mean heart rate and rate-pressure product. The increase in heart rate was greater in dogs of the infusion group. Mild and transient respiratory depression was observed in dogs of both groups immediately after administration of k-m, but was greater in dogs of the bolus group than in dogs of the infusion group. Duration of action of k-m for chemical restraint was short. Salivation and defecation were observed in a few dogs. Extreme muscular tone developed in 1 dog after k-m bolus administration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cardiovascular effects of iv administered ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) were determined in 12 healthy isoflurane-anesthetized (1.7% end-tidal concentration) dogs. Six dogs received a ketamine-midazolam combination (k-m) as a bolus over 30 seconds and 6 dogs received k-m as an infusion over 15 minutes. Ketamine-midazolam combination as a bolus and an infusion caused early significant (P < 0.05) reductions in mean systemic blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke index, which returned to baseline values near the end of the study. Heart rate decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in dogs of the infusion group and returned to the baseline value near the end of the study. One dog died after k-m bolus administration. Mean maximal decreases from baseline for systemic blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke index were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in dogs of the bolus group than in dogs of the infusion group; therefore, cardiovascular effects of k-m after infusion were less severe than those after bolus. Base excess and pHa decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the infusion group, although similar changes occurred in both groups.

Four dogs were maintained with 1.7% end-tidal isoflurane to determine temporal effects of isoflurane; these dogs did not receive k-m. Increases in heart rate, cardiac index, stroke index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indexes were significant (P < 0.05) at various sample collection intervals, particularly during the later stages of the study.

Isoflurane anesthesia effectively blocked the cardiostimulatory properties of k-m. Ketamine-midazolam combination should be used cautiously during isoflurane anesthesia, and administration by slow infusion may be safer than by rapid bolus administration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To evaluate effects of a single high dose of gentamicin on neuromuscular function in horses anesthetized with halothane.

Animals

6 healthy adult horses.

Procedure

Halothane-anesthetized horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency, and the right hind limb was immobilized in a reusable fiberglass cast fixed to a steel frame. The hoof was attached to a force transducer, and resting tension of 0.93 ± 0.16 kg was maintained. A supramaximal train-of-four stimulus of 2 Hz for a duration of 0.25 millisecond was applied to the superficial peroneal nerve every 20 seconds by a square-wave stimulator. The force of the evoked digital extensor tension was recorded to determine first muscle twitch tension, compared with the baseline value (T1%) and the ratio of the force of the fourth twitch to the first twitch (T4/T1). Data were recorded at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after IV administration of vehicle or gentamicin (6 mg/kg of body weight).

Results

There was a significant (P = 0.04) treatment-time interaction for the effect of gentamicin on T1%; T1% associated with vehicle decreased from 100% to 92% during the 60- minute study period, but no decrease was associated with gentamicin. For T4/T1, there was no significant effect of treatment or time or treatment-time interaction between gentamicin and vehicle.

Conclusions

Gentamicin did not cause a decrease in initial muscular strength, nor did it impair the muscles’ ability to sustain strength.

Clinical Relevance

A single high dose of gentamicin does not cause significant neuromuscular blockade when administered alone to healthy horses anesthetized with halothane. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1324–1326)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate anesthetic effects of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ), alone or in combination with butorphanol, in goats undergoing laparotomy for embryo collection.

Design

Randomized clinical trial with crossover design.

Animals

9 adult female goats.

Procedure

Goats were anesthetized twice: once with TZ (5.5 mg/kg [2.5 mg/lb] of body weight, IV) and once with tiletamine-zolazepam and butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IV). Additional doses of TZ (0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg [0.23 to 0.45 mg/lb], IV) were administered as needed to maintain a surgical anesthetic plane. Time to sternal recumbency was recorded, and quality of induction was scored. Arterial pressures, heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded every 5 minutes; arterial blood samples were collected every 30 minutes. Oxygen was insufflated if estimated saturation of hemoglobin in peripheral arterial blood with oxygen was < 90%; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was performed if goats became apneic. Muscle relaxation, quality of anesthesia, and eye signs were scored every 15 minutes during anesthesia. Anesthesia time was recorded, and quality of recovery and degree of postoperative analgesia were scored. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured before induction, immediately after extubation, and 2 hours after extubation.

Results

Induction was rapid and smooth. Five goats regurgitated, 3 required supplemental oxygen, and 1 required intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, but none of the goats became hypotensive. Muscle relaxation and quality of anesthesia were adequate. Goats recovered from anesthesia without complications. We did not detect any significant differences between anesthetic regimens for any of the variables measured, except bicarbonate concentration and base excess.

Clinical Implications

TZ at a dose of 5.5 mg/kg was satisfactory for anesthetic induction in goats; additional doses can be given to extend anesthesia time, but addition of butorphanol at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg to this regimen does not seem to provide any measurable benefit. An oxygen source and a means of assisting ventilation should be available. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:593–597)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Clorazepate dipotassium was administered orally to 8 healthy dogs at a dosage of 2 mg/kg of body weight, q 12 h, for 21 days. Serum disposition of nordiazepam, the principle metabolite of clorazepate, was determined after the first and last dose of clorazepate. Disposition variables were analyzed by use of model-independent pharmacokinetics by the predictive equations method and the trapezoidal rule method. Complete blood counts, serum chemical analyses, and urinalyses were performed before administration of clorazepate and at 10 and 21 days after administration of clorazepate.

Maximal nordiazepam concentrations ranged from 446 to 1,542 ng/ml (814 ± 334 ng/ml), at 59 to 180 minutes (97.9 ± 42.0 minutes) after a single oral dose of clorazepate. Maximal nordiazepam concentrations ranged from 927 to 1,460 ng/ml (1,308 ± 187.6 ng/ml), at 120 to 239 minutes (153 ± 57.9 minutes) after multiple oral doses of clorazepate. Serum disposition was significantly altered after multiple doses of clorazepate. Using data determined by the predictive equations method, the mean residence time after multiple doses (712 ± 214 minutes) was longer (P < 0.05) than after a single dose (527 ± 95.8 minutes). Oral volume of distribution after multiple doses of clorazepate (1.76 ± 0.647 L/kg) was smaller (P < 0.02) than after a single dose (3.18 ± 1.52 L/kg). Oral clearance after multiple doses of clorazepate (3.09 ± 0.726 ml/min/kg) was less (P < 0.001) than after a single dose (6.54 ± 2.15 ml/min/kg). Absorption half-life after multiple doses (72 minutes) was longer (P < 0.01) than after a single dose (33 minutes). The elimination half-life after a single dose (284 minutes) was not significantly different after multiple doses (355 minutes).

Significant changes (P < 0.05) in serum chemical values after multiple doses of clorazepate included decreased concentrations of albumin, total protein, and calcium and increased concentrations of urea nitrogen and glucose. Serum activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase increased after multiple doses of clorazepate. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in the hemogram included increased total wbc count, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. Urine pH after multiple doses (5.88 ± 0.641) was lower (P < 0.01) than after a single dose (7.44 ± 1.29). All changes in laboratory values remained within our reference ranges.

Mild sedation and ataxia developed in only 1 dog after the first dose of clorazepate. These effects were transient and did not redevelop with additional dosing.

An oral clorazepate dosage of 2 mg/kg, q 12 h, maintains serum nordiazepam concentrations considered to be therapeutic in human beings (500 to 1,900 ng/ml).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate disposition of butorphanol after IV and IM administration, effects on physiologic variables, and analgesic efficacy after IM administration in llamas.

Design—Nonrandomized crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult male llamas.

Procedure—Butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb] of body weight) was administered IM first and IV 1 month later. Blood samples were collected intermittently for 24 hours after administration. Plasma butorphanol versus time curves were subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. Two months later, butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg) was administered IM, and physiologic variables and analgesia were assessed.

Results—Extrapolated peak plasma concentrations after IV and IM administration were 94.8 ± 53.1 and 34.3 ± 11.6 ng/ml, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state after IV administration was 0.822 ± 0.329 L/kg per minute and systemic clearance was 0.050 ± 0.014 L/kg per minute. Slope of the elimination phase was significantly different, and elimination half-life was significantly shorter after IV (15.9 ± 9.1 minutes) versus IM (66.8 ± 13.5 minutes) administration. Bioavailability was 110 ± 49% after IM administration. Heart rate decreased and rectal temperature increased. Somatic analgesia was increased for various periods. Two llamas became transiently sedated, and 2 became transiently excited after butorphanol administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although IV administration of butorphanol results in a short halflife that may limit its analgesic usefulness, the elimination half-life of butorphanol administered IM is likely to be clinically useful. The relationship among plasma butorphanol concentration, time, and analgesia differed with the somatic analgesia model; clinically useful analgesia may occur at lower plasma concentrations than those reported here. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1263–1267)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate disposition of fentanyl in goats after IV and transdermal administration.

Animals

8 healthy 2-year-old goats weighing 31.8 to 53.6 kg (mean ± SD, 40.4 ± 7.5 kg).

Procedure

Each goat was given 2 treatments consisting of fentanyl administered IV (2.5 μg/kg of body weight) and via a transdermal patch (50 μg/h). There was a 2-month interval between treatments. Blood samples were collected at specified times and analyzed in duplicate to determine plasma fentanyl concentrations. Pharmacokinetic values were calculated, using a computerized modeling program.

Results

Administration of fentanyl was tolerated by all goats. Intravenous administration of fentanyl resulted in a transitory increase in rectal temperature that was not clinically important. Terminal elimination half-life after IV administration was 1.20 ± 0.78 h, volume of distribution at steady state was 1.51 ± 0.39 L/kg, and systemic clearance was 2.09 ± 0.62 L/kg/h. Transdermal administration of fentanyl resulted in variable plasma concentrations, with peak plasma concentrations ranging from 1.12 to 16.69 ng/ml (mean ± SD, 6.99 ± 6.03 ng/ml) and time to peak concentration ranging from 8 to 18 hours (mean ± SD, 13 ± 4.5 hours). After removal of the transdermal patch, mean ± SD terminal elimination half-life was 5.34 ± 5.34 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Intravenous administration of fentanyl (2.5 μg/kg) in goats results in a relatively short half-life that will limit its use for management of pain. Transdermal administration of fentanyl (50 μg/h) in goats results in variable plasma concentrations that may exceed those anticipated on the basis of a theoretical delivery rate, but stable plasma concentrations of fentanyl may not be achieved. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:986–991)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine the cardiovascular effects of buprenorphine in isoflurane-and halothane-anesthetized dogs.

Animals

6 healthy adult hound-type dogs given buprenorphine (16 μg/kg of body weight, IV) or isovolumetric 5% dextrose solution during anesthesia with isoflurane or halothane.

Procedure

Each dog was anesthetized 4 times, with a minimum of 10 days between episodes. Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane or halothane in O2 by mask, and was maintained with 1.9% isoflurane or 1.3% halothane (end-tidal concentration). The Paco2 was maintained between 35 and 45 mm of Hg by use of mechanical ventilation, and the following variables were determined: systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures; cardiac output; cardiac index; stroke volume; heart rate; systemic vascular resistance; mean pulmonary arterial pressure; and pulmonary vascular resistance. In addition, arterial blood samples for gas and acid-base analyses were collected at 30-minute intervals for 2.5 hours. After baseline values were recorded, dogs were randomly assigned to receive either buprenorphine (16 μg/kg, IV) or isovolumetric 5% dextrose solution. All variables were then recorded at 15-minute intervals for 2.5 hours.

Results

During isoflurane anesthesia, buprenorphine administration caused significant (P < 0.05) reductions in diastolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, systolic arterial pressure, cardiac index, and heart rate, whereas systemic vascular resistance increased significantly. During halothane anesthesia, buprenorphine administration caused significant decreases in heart rate, cardiac index, mean, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures, and stroke volume, whereas pulmonary arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased significantly.

Conclusion

Although the changes seen were significant, they were not sufficiently large to be of clinical importance in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1280–1284)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate adequacy of analgesia provided by postoperative administration of butorphanol to cats undergoing onychectomy.

Design

Randomized controlled trial.

Animals

63 cats undergoing elective onychectomy.

Procedure

Cats were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 42) or control group (21). Cats in the treatment group were given butorphanol parenterally immediately and 4 hours after surgery and orally for 2 days after surgery. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded and scores were assigned for temperament, recovery, sedation, analgesia, and lameness for the first 24 hours after surgery. Owners provided scores for appetite, personality, and lameness the first and second days after discharge from the hospital.

Results

Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and temperament and sedation scores were not significantly different between groups at any evaluation time. Recovery scores were significantly better for butorphanol-treated than for control-group cats 10 minutes after extubation. Analgesia scores were significantly better for butorphanol-treated than for control-group cats between 5 and 24 hours after surgery. Fewer butorphanol-treated than control-group cats were lame at the time of discharge from the hospital. The first day after discharge, owners reported that percentages of butorphanol-treated cats that ate normally, acted normally, and had only mild or no lameness were significantly higher than percentages of control-group cats that did. Significant differences between groups were not detected the second day after discharge.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that for cats undergoing onychectomy, administration of butorphanol the day of surgery and the first full day after surgery provides effective analgesia and improves recovery, appetite, and gait. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:246-250)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association