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  • Author or Editor: Sami Al-Nadaf x
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Objective—To compare results of single-point kinetic gait analysis (peak and impulse) with those of complete gait waveform analysis.

Animals—15 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were trotted across 2 force platforms (velocity, 1.7 to 2.1 m/s; acceleration and deceleration, 0.5 m/s2). Five valid trials were recorded on each testing day. Testing days 1 and 2 were separated by 1 week, as were days 3 and 4. Testing days 1 and 2 were separated from days 3 and 4 by 1 year. A paired t test was performed to evaluate interday and interyear differences for vertical and craniocaudal propulsion peak forces and impulses. Vertical and craniocaudal propulsion force-time waveforms were similarly compared by use of generalized indicator function analysis (GIFA).

Results—Vertical and craniocaudal propulsion peak forces and impulses did not differ significantly between days 1 and 2 or days 3 and 4. When data were compared between years, no significant differences were found for vertical impulse and craniocaudal propulsion peak force and impulse, but differences were detected for vertical peak force. The GIFA of the vertical and craniocaudal force-time waveforms identified significant interday and interyear differences. These results were identical for both hind limbs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that when comparing kinetic data overtime, additional insight may be gleaned from GIFA of the complete waveform, particularly when subtle waveform differences are present.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To establish the pharmacokinetics of a single 2-mg oral dose of chlorambucil in cats with indolent lymphoproliferative malignancies.


24 client-owned cats.


Cats were assigned to 1 of 4 groups, with each group having a total of 3 sample collection time points over 12 hours after receiving a single 2-mg oral dose of chlorambucil. Each time point combined to generate 6 full patient plasma chlorambucil concentration-time curves from the 24 cats. Chlorambucil treatment was continued every other day and a single, variably timed sample collection was obtained on day 14. Population parameter estimates were obtained by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Covariates investigated included age, sex, baseline serum cobalamin, study location, weight, and body condition score.


Chlorambucil administered orally to cats was found to have a peak plasma concentration of approximately 170 ng/mL (SE, 31.1 ng/mL), percent coefficient of variation (%CV) of 18.4% within 15 minutes, and a terminal half-life of 1.8 hours (SE, 0.21 hour; %CV, 12.4). At the 4-hour mark, a smaller secondary peak in plasma chlorambucil was found. Day 14 samples were similar to those of the initial dose. No covariates showed a significant effect in the population model.


In these cats, chlorambucil at a 2-mg dose administered every other day undergoes rapid gastrointestinal absorption and plasma clearance with no drug accumulation between doses. These data are critical to inform future work investigating the association of chlorambucil drug exposure with adverse events and outcome of cats with lymphoproliferative diseases.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the ability of ABT-116 (a proprietary antagonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) administered at 2 doses to attenuate lameness in dogs with experimentally induced urate synovitis.

Animals—8 purpose-bred mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—In a 4-way crossover study, dogs orally received each of low-dose ABT-116 treatment (LDA; 10 mg/kg), high-dose ABT-116 treatment (HDA; 30 mg/kg), firocoxib (5 mg/kg), and no treatment (nontreatment) once a day for 2 days, in a randomly assigned order. Synovitis was induced on the second day of each treatment period by intra-articular injection of either stifle joint with sodium urate, alternating between joints for each treatment period, beginning with the left stifle joint. Ground reaction forces, clinical lameness scores, and rectal temperature were assessed before the injection (baseline) and at various points afterward.

Results—Lameness scores at the 2-, 6-, and 12-hour assessment points were higher than baseline scores for HDA and nontreatment, whereas scores at the 2- and 6-hour points were higher than baseline scores for LDA. For firocoxib, there was no difference from baseline scores in lameness scores at any point. Compared with baseline values, peak vertical force and vertical impulse were lower at 2 and 6 hours for HDA and nontreatment and at 2 hours for LDA. No changes in these values were evident for firocoxib. The HDA or LDA resulted in higher rectal temperatures than did treatment with firocoxib or nothing, but those temperatures did not differ among treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—HDA had no apparent effect on sodium urate–induced lameness; LDA did attenuate the lameness but not as completely as firocoxib treatment. High rectal temperature is an adverse effect of oral ABT-116 administration that may be of clinical concern.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare overground and treadmill-based gaits of dogs.

Animals —5 clinically normal adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—To obtain dynamic gait data, 30 retroreflective markers were affixed bilaterally to specific regions of the hind limbs and pelvis of each dog. For each dog, 3-D joint motion data (sagittal [flexion and extension], transverse [internal and external rotation], and frontal [abduction and adduction] planes of motion) for the hip, femorotibial, and tarsal joints were acquired during walking and trotting through a calibrated testing space overground or on a treadmill. Comparison of data was performed via generalized indicator function analysis and Fourier analysis.

Results—Both overground and treadmill-based gaits produced similar waveforms in all planes of motion. Fourier analysis revealed no difference between overground and treadmill-based gaits in the sagittal plane of motion; however, small differences were detected between overground and treadmill-based gaits in the other 2 planes of motion. Additionally, femorotibial joint motion during walking did not differ among planes of motion. Generalized indicator function analysis was able to detect differences between overground and treadmill-based gait waveforms in all planes of motion for all joints during walking and trotting.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, overground and treadmill-based gaits produced similar waveform shapes. Of the 3 planes of motion evaluated, only sagittal plane kinematic gait data were unaffected by mode of ambulation as determined via Fourier analysis. Sagittal kinematic gait data collected from dogs during overground or treadmill-based ambulation were comparable. However, analysis methods may affect data comparisons.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the ability of perzinfotel (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist) and a proprietary phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor to attenuate lameness in dogs with sodium urate (SU)–induced synovitis.

Animals—8 adult dogs.

Procedures—A blinded 4-way crossover study was performed. Dogs received perzinfotel (10 mg/kg), a proprietary PLA2 inhibitor (10 mg/kg), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg; positive control treatment), or no treatment (negative control treatment). On the fourth day after initiation of treatment, synovitis was induced via intra-articular injection of SU 1 hour before administration of the last treatment dose. Ground reaction forces were measured and clinical lameness evaluations were performed before (baseline [time 0]) and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 25 hours after SU injection. There was a 21-day washout period between subsequent treatments. Data were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVAs.

Results—Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) values for negative control and perzinfotel treatments were significantly lower at 2 and 4 hours, compared with baseline values. Values for PVF and VI for the PLA2 inhibitor and positive control treatments did not differ from baseline values at any time points. Between-treatment comparisons revealed significantly higher PVF and VI values for the positive control treatment than for the negative control and perzinfotel treatments at 2 and 4 hours. Values for VI were higher for PLA2 inhibitor treatment than for negative control treatment at 2 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Perzinfotel did not significantly alter SU–induced lameness. The proprietary PLA2 inhibitor attenuated lameness but not as completely as did carprofen.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research