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A 3-year-old 17.5-kg (38.5-lb) mixed-breed dog was referred for evaluation because of nasal discharge, sneezing, and signs of nasal congestion of approximately 9 months’ duration. A diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS) was made prior to referral.


Sneezing, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, reduced nasal airflow, stertor, and increased inspiratory effort were noted on physical examination. Results of serum biochemical analysis were within respective reference ranges. Review of CT images of the skull revealed findings consistent with severe bilateral partial osseous choanal atresia and NPS. Retrograde rhinoscopy confirmed membranous NPS.


A ventral rhinotomy was performed; communication between the pharynx and nasal passageway was reestablished by surgical debridement of the caudal border of the palatine bone and vomerine crest and groove, followed by dissection of the membranous NPS and reconstruction of the caudal part of the nasopharynx. A covered nasopharyngeal stent was placed in the newly established nasopharynx. The dog recovered uneventfully but was presented 3 weeks later with recurrent signs; diagnostic findings were consistent with stenosis rostral to the stent. The stenosis was treated with balloon dilation, and a second covered stent was placed rostral to and overlapping the first stent, spanning the stenotic region. Eleven months after this procedure, the dog was doing well.


Results for this patient suggested that ventral rhinotomy and covered nasopharyngeal stent placement can be used successfully for the management of osseous choanal atresia in dogs; however, careful attention to preoperative planning and potential complications is necessary. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:190–196)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine percentages of domestic cats and dogs vaccinated against rabies, identify barriers to vaccination, and assess knowledge about rabies in a semirural New Mexico community after a skunk rabies outbreak.

Design—Cross-sectional, door-to-door, bilingual, community-based participatory survey.

Sample—366 residential properties in Eddy County, NM.

Procedures—The New Mexico Department of Health and CDC administered surveys and analyzed data.

Results—Individuals at 247 of the 366 residential properties participated in the survey. One hundred eighty of the 247 (73%) households owned a dog (n = 292) or cat (163). Cats were more likely than dogs to not have an up-to-date rabies vaccination status (prevalence ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 4.4). Cost and time or scheduling were the most frequently identified barriers to vaccination. One hundred sixty (65%) respondents did not know livestock can transmit rabies, 78 (32%) did not know rabies is fatal, and 89 (36%) did not know a bat scratching a person can be an exposure. Only 187 (76%) respondents indicated they would contact animal control if they saw a sick skunk, and only 166 (67%) indicated they would contact animal control if bitten by a dog they did not own.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that rabies vaccination prevalence among pet dogs and cats was low, despite the fact that the region had experienced a skunk rabies outbreak during the previous 2 years. In addition, substantial percentages of respondents did not have correct knowledge of rabies or rabies exposure.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To investigate in vitro effects of triclosan coating of suture materials on the growth of clinically relevant bacteria isolated from wounds in dogs.


6 types of suture material and 10 isolates each of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, methicillin-resistant S pseudintermedius, Escherichia coli, and AmpC β-lactamase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E coli from clinical wound infections.


Isolates were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar with 3 types of triclosan-coated suture, uncoated counterparts of the same suture types, and positive and negative controls. Zones of inhibition (ZOIs) were measured after overnight incubation. Sustained antimicrobial activity assays were performed with susceptible isolates. The ZOI measurements and durations of sustained antimicrobial activity were compared among suture types and isolates by statistical methods. Suture surface characteristics and bacterial adherence were evaluated qualitatively with scanning electron microscopy.


ZOIs were generated only by triclosan-coated materials; triclosan-coated suture had sustained antimicrobial activity (inhibition) for 3 to 29 days against all tested pathogens. The ZOIs around triclosan-coated suture were significantly greater for S pseudintermedius isolates than for E coli isolates. Bacterial adherence to uncoated polyglactin-910 was greatest, followed by triclosan-coated polyglactin-910, and then uncoated monofilament sutures, with least adherence to coated monofilament sutures.


Surface characteristics of suture materials may be as important or more important than triclosan coating for microbial inhibition; however, triclosan coating appeared to affect bacterial adherence for multifilament sutures. Triclosan-coated, particularly monofilament, sutures inhibited pathogens commonly isolated from wounds of dogs, including multidrug-resistant bacteria. Further studies are required to assess clinical efficacy of triclosan-coated suture materials in vivo.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research