To characterize objective and subjective elements of the personal lives of American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) diplomates and identify elements of personal life associated with professional life or career success.
836 ACVS diplomates.
An 81-item questionnaire was sent to 1,450 diplomates in 2015 via email and conducted by means of an online platform. Responses were analyzed to summarize trends and identify associations among selected variables.
Men were more likely than women to be married or in a domestic partnership (88% vs 68%, respectively) and to have children (77% vs 47%). Among women but not men, respondents in large animal practice were less likely than were those in small animal practice to be represented in these categories. Women had children later in their career than did men and indicated that their stage of training played an important role in family planning. Respondents with children worked significantly fewer hours than did those without children, with a greater reduction in hours for women versus men (6.0 vs 3.1 hours, respectively). Women were more likely to require external childcare services than were men. Women were more likely to report that having children had negatively impacted their professional lives. No negative associations between measures of professional success (eg, advancement or personal income) and parenthood were identified.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Family demographics differed between male and female ACVS diplomates, yet no objective impact on career success was identified. Work-life balance may play an important role in recruitment, retention, and job satisfaction of veterinary surgeons.
To compare resident and intern salaries with current regional living wages as a quantitative estimate of financial strain.
152 residency programs and 141 internship programs listed with the Veterinary Internship and Residency Matching Program for the 2021–2022 training year.
Data were collected for program annual salary and location. Regional living wage for each location was determined with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Living Wage Calculator, and annual salary was compared with living wage to estimate income surplus before and after taxes. Results for programs in academia and private practice were compared. Spearman correlation was used to determine whether program annual salary was significantly associated with regional living wage.
Mean ± SD income surplus before taxes was $7,786 ± 9,426 for clinical residency programs, $16,672 ± 5,105 for laboratory animal programs, and $5,829 ± 8,119 for internships. Academic residencies and internships offered salaries significantly lower than those offered in private practice, and income surpluses before and after taxes were significantly lower for academic programs than for private practice programs. There were weak and moderate, respectively, correlations between program annual salary and regional living wage for residency (r = 0.369) and internship (r = 0.570) programs.
Postgraduate training prolongs financial instability, and annual salaries generally do not meet the minimum income standard of a living wage. Financial stress has implications for mental health and diversity, and these findings invite deeper consideration of current remuneration practices for veterinary residents and interns.
To characterize elements of employment, professional success, and personal life for American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) diplomates and identify elements of practice that may serve as barriers to work-life balance or affect men and women differently.
836 ACVS diplomates.
An 81-item questionnaire was sent to 1,450 ACVS diplomates in 2015 via email and conducted by means of an online platform. Responses were analyzed to identify associations among selected variables.
The survey response rate was 58% (836/1,450). The median age category among respondents was 41 to 45 years. The ratio of male to female diplomates was equivalent among those < 40 years old. Respondents in small animal private practice worked the fewest number of hours; those in equine or large animal private practice worked the most and had the most on-call responsibility. Women were more likely than men to be employed in academia. In both private practice and academia, respondents in small animal practice earned more than did those in equine or large animal practice, and women earned less than did men, even after adjustment for relevant covariates. Women were less likely than men to be practice owners or to hold a prestigious academic title and rank. Perceptions about the effect of gender in the workplace differed between men and women.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings suggested that the veterinary surgical profession is demanding for both genders, although increased flexibility in certain areas may improve work-life balance.
To evaluate income and family planning decisions of American College of Zoological Medicine (ACZM) diplomates.
98 ACZM diplomates.
An online survey was sent to 201 ACZM diplomates. Participation was voluntary.
98 (49%) diplomates responded to the survey. The most commonly reported income categories were $90,000 to $94,999, $100,000 to $104,999, and $110,000 to $114,999. Overall, the mean of the salary-category midpoint responses was $105,357 but was $122,917 for those in academia and $94,508 for those working in zoos and aquaria. When incomes of males and females were matched (24 pairs matched for gender and age), no difference in income was observed. There were no significant differences in income between males and females with and without children. Diplomates who did not complete a residency had significantly higher incomes than diplomates who did. Sixteen of 21 (76%) females and 9 of 19 (47%) males reported delaying having children because of their career. Additionally, a higher percentage of females with children (13/20 [65%]) than males with children (3/19 [16%]) felt that having children had had a negative effect on their career. Thirty-five of 41 (85%) females without children and 4 of 9 (44%) males without children thought having children would have negatively affected their careers.
Although substantial differences in income between female and male ACZM diplomates were not identified, differences in family planning and perceptions of the impact of having children on their careers did exist.
Objective—To determine the phase and quantitate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, hyoepiglotticus, omohyoideus, sternohyoideus, sternothyroideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles of clinically normal horses during strenuous exercise.
Animals—7 clinically normal adult horses (2 Thoroughbreds and 5 Standardbreds).
Procedures—Bipolar electrodes were surgically implanted in the aforementioned muscles, and horses were subjected to an incremental exercise test on a high-speed treadmill. The EMG, heart rate, respiratory rate, and static pharyngeal airway pressures were measured during exercise. The EMG was measured as mean electrical activity (MEA). The MEA values for maximal exercise intensity (13 or 14 m/s) were expressed as a percentage of the MEA measured at an exercise intensity of 6 m/s.
Results—MEA was detected during expiration in the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, sternohyoideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles and during inspiration in the hyoepiglotticus and sternothyroideus muscles. Intensity of the MEA increased significantly with exercise intensity in the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, and hyoepiglotticus muscles. Intensity of the MEA increased significantly in relation to expiratory pharyngeal pressure in the geniohyoideus and hyoepiglotticus muscles.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Once exercise intensity reached 6 m/s, no quantifiable additional increase in muscular activity was detected in the omohyoideus, sternohyoideus, sternothyroideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles. However, muscles that may affect the diameter of the oropharynx (genioglossus and geniohyoideus muscles) or rima glottis (hyoepiglotticus muscle) had activity correlated with the intensity of exercise or expiratory pharyngeal pressures. Activity of the muscles affecting the geometry of the oropharynx may be important in the pathophysiologic processes associated with nasopharyngeal patency.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the biomechanical properties of 4 methods for fusion of the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints in horses and compare them among each other and with control tarsi.
SAMPLE 24 sets of paired tarsi without substantial signs of osteoarthritis harvested from equine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Test constructs (n = 6/type) were prepared from 1 tarsus from each pair to represent surgical drilling; 2 medially to laterally placed kerf-cut cylinders (MLKCs); a single large, dorsally applied kerf-cut cylinder (DKC); and a dorsomedially applied locking compression plate (DMLCP). Constructs and their contralateral control tarsi were evaluated in 4-point bending in the dorsoplantar, lateromedial, and mediolateral directions; internal and external rotation; and axial compression. Bending, torsional, and axial stiffness values were calculated.
RESULTS Mean stiffness values were consistently lower for surgical drilling constructs than for contralateral control tarsi. Over all biomechanical testing, surgical drilling significantly reduced joint stability. The MLKC constructs had superior biomechanical properties to those of control tarsi for 4-point bending but inferior properties for external and internal rotation. The DMLCP and DKC constructs were superior to control tarsi in dorsoplantar, rotational, and axial compression directions only; DMLCP constructs had no superior stiffness in lateromedial or mediolateral directions. Only the DKC constructs had greater stiffness in the mediolateral direction than did control tarsi. Over all biomechanical testing, DMLCP and DKC constructs were superior to the other constructs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These biomechanical results suggested that a surgical drilling approach to joint fusion may reduce tarsal stability in horses without clinical osteoarthritis, compared with stability with no intervention, whereas the DMLCP and DKC approaches may significantly enhance stability.