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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the use of microwave ablation (MWA) with cooling urethral perfusion and with no perfusion (MWA-UP and MWA-NP, respectively) for prostate gland ablation in canine cadavers.

ANIMALS

Cadavers of 18 sexually intact male dogs.

PROCEDURES

After technique refinement in 2 cadavers, laparotomy with ultrasound-guided MWA-UP (n = 8) or MWA-NP (8) of the prostate gland was performed in 16 cadavers. Normograde cystourethroscopy was performed before and after treatment; recorded images were reviewed in a blinded manner for scoring of urethral mucosal discoloration and loss of integrity. Difficulty with cystoscope insertion was recorded if present. Excised prostate glands were fixed for serial sectioning, gross measurements, and calculation of percentage ablation. Percentages of prostate tissue necrosis from MWA, denuded urethral mucosa, and depth of epithelial surface loss in an adjacent section of the colon were estimated histologically. Variables of interest were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS

Difficulty with cystoscope insertion after treatment was significantly more common and scores for urethral mucosal discoloration and loss of integrity were significantly higher (indicating more severe lesions) for the MWA-NP group than for the MWA-UP group. The histologically assessed percentage of denuded urethral mucosa was also greater for the MWA-NP group. Overall median percentage prostate gland ablation was 73%; this result was not associated with prostate gland volume or chronological order of treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

MWA-UP induced subtotal thermal necrosis of prostate glands in canine cadavers while limiting urethral mucosal injury. Further study is required to optimize the technique and evaluate its safety and efficacy in vivo as a future curative-intent treatment for prostatic tumors in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate long-term outcomes and identify factors associated with death or the need for revision surgery in dogs with permanent tracheostomies (PTs).

DESIGN

Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS

69 client-owned dogs that received a PT between January 2002 and June 2016 at 1 of 4 veterinary teaching hospitals.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, radiographic and laryngeal examination findings, presence of esophageal abnormalities, date and reason for receiving a PT, postoperative complications, cause of death, and survival time. Dogs surviving < 2 weeks after receiving a PT were excluded.

RESULTS

Major complications occurred in 42 of 69 (61%) dogs, with aspiration pneumonia (13 [19%]), skinfold occlusion (13 [19%]), and stoma stenosis (12 [17%]) being most common. Revision surgery was performed in 24 of 69 (35%) dogs, most commonly because of stoma stenosis or skinfold occlusion (9/24 [38%] each). Brachycephalic dogs were more likely (OR, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 10.2) to require revision surgery than were nonbrachycephalic dogs. The overall median survival time was 1,825 days, and dogs that received corticosteroids before receiving a PT, had tracheal collapse, or were older had shorter survival times.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of the present study indicated that creation of a PT was a viable treatment option for obstructive upper airway diseases in dogs and that long-term survival after receiving a PT was possible; however, a PT may not reduce the risk of aspiration pneumonia in dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association