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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (LRLn) performed under standing sedation and evaluate the effect of LRLn on upper respiratory tract function using a high-speed treadmill test (HST). We hypothesized that (1) unilateral LRLn could be performed in standing horses, resulting in ipsilateral arytenoid cartilage collapse (ACC); and (2) HST after LRLn would be associated with alterations in upper respiratory function consistent with dynamic ACC.

ANIMALS

6 Thoroughbred horses.

METHODS

The horses were trained and underwent a baseline HST up to 14 m/s at 5% incline until fatigue. Evaluation included; airflow, pharyngeal and tracheal pressures, and dynamic upper respiratory tract endoscopy. Trans-laryngeal impedance (TLI) and left-to-right quotient angle ratio (LRQ) were calculated after testing. The following day, standing LRLn was performed in the mid-cervical region. A HST was repeated within 4 days after surgery.

RESULTS

Standing LRLn was performed without complication resulting in Havemayer grade 4 ACC at rest (complete paralysis) and Rakestraw grade C or D ACC (collapse up to or beyond rima glottis midline) during exercise. Increasing treadmill speed from 11 to 14 m/s increased TLI (P < .001) and reduced LRQ (P < .001). Neurectomy resulted in an increase in TLI (P = .021) and a reduction in LRQ (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Standing LRLn induces laryngeal hemiplegia that can be evaluated using a HST closely after neurectomy. Standing LRLn may be useful for future prospective evaluations of surgical interventions for laryngeal hemiplegia.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Evaluate a prototype dynamic laryngoplasty system (DLPS) in horses; a feasibility study.

ANIMALS

7 healthy Standardbred adult horses.

METHODS

This was an in vivo experimental study. Horses had a standing surgical procedure to induce complete laryngeal hemiplegia, which was subsequently treated using the dynamic laryngoplasty system (DLPS). Activation of the DLPS was achieved using an injection port exiting through the skin (n = 2) or a subcutaneous injection port (n = 5). For each horse, endoscopic examinations of the upper respiratory tract were performed preoperatively, intraoperatively, and 7 days postoperatively. Left-to-right quotient ratios calculated during inactivated and activated states were obtained from still images of the rima glottidis acquired during day 7. In 3 horses, the device was intentionally overinflated to evaluate for device failure, and postmortem examinations were performed on day 7. For the remaining 4 horses, upper respiratory tract endoscopy was repeated at 1 month postoperatively, with no subsequent postmortem exam.

RESULTS

No perioperative complications occurred, and the DLPS was effectively delivered in all horses under standing sedation. The left-to-right quotient ratio at day 7 postoperatively could be altered from a resting position of 0.76 (± 0.06) to a maximum of 0.97 (± 0.06; P < .05). The degree of arytenoid abduction could not be significantly altered after 1 month of device implantation, suspected to be due to peri-implant fibrosis. No coughing nor tracheal contamination was observed at all time points or during inflation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The ability to alter the degree of abduction at 7 days postoperatively with the DLPS may be beneficial in selective cases.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of a telemetric gastrointestinal (GI) pill to continuously monitor GI temperature in horses at rest and during exercise and to compare time profiles of GI temperature and rectal temperature.

ANIMALS 8 Standardbred horses.

PROCEDURES Accuracy and precision of the GI pill and a rectal probe were determined in vitro by comparing temperature measurements with values obtained by a certified resistance temperature detector (RTD) in water baths at various temperatures (37°, 39°, and 41°C). Subsequently, both GI and rectal temperature were recorded in vivo in 8 horses over 3 consecutive days. The GI temperature was recorded continuously, and rectal temperature was recorded for 3.5 hours daily. Comparisons were made between GI temperature and rectal temperature for horses at rest, during exercise, and after exercise.

RESULTS Water bath evaluation revealed good agreement between the rectal probe and RTD. However, the GI pill systematically underestimated temperature by 0.14°C. In vivo, GI temperature data were captured with minimal difficulties. Most data loss occurred during the first 16 hours, after which the mean ± SD data loss was 8.6 ± 3.7%. The GI temperature was consistently and significantly higher than rectal temperature with an overall mean temperature difference across time of 0.27°C (range, 0.22° to 0.32°C). Mean measurement cessation point for the GI pill was 5.1 ± 1.0 days after administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study revealed that the telemetric GI pill was a reliable and practical method for real-time monitoring of GI temperature in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research