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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate 4 rapid supravital stains and 3 preparation techniques for use in the intraoperative diagnosis of intracranial lesions.

Animals—10 dogs and 1 cat euthanatized for intracranial lesions.

Procedure—Specimens were taken from lesions and slides prepared, using 3 techniques: touch impression, medium-pressure impression, or smear preparation. Preparations were then stained with 4 stains: modified Wright stain, May-Grünwald-Giemsa, toluidine blue, and zynostain and examined in a blinded randomized fashion. Cytologic diagnosis was compared with histopathologic diagnosis and classified on the basis of identification of the pathologic process and specific diagnosis into the following categories: complete correlation, partial correlation, or no correlation.

Results—An overall diagnostic accuracy of 81% (107/132) was achieved on the basis of a combination of partial and complete correlation. Of the stains examined, modified Wright stain appeared to be most accurate, with complete correlation in 17 of 33 (52%) specimens and partial correlation in 12 of 33 (36%) specimens. Of the preparation methods, touch preparation and smear preparation provided the most accurate results, with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 82% (36/44) for both methods. However, smear preparations appeared to be of greater diagnostic value, with fewer nondiagnostic specimens, compared with touch preparations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cytologic preparations provide a useful diagnostic tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of intracranial lesions. All stains examined yielded promising results, the most accurate of which appeared to be the modified Wright stain. The smear preparation appeared to be the preparation method of greatest diagnostic value. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:381–386)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of high-resolution MRI for hippocampal volumetry in dogs and to define a lower reference limit for hippocampal formation (HF) volume.

Animals—20 dogs (with no history of seizures and no underlying structural brain disease) that underwent MRI of the brain.

Procedures—The MRI protocol included a high-resolution T1-weighted 3-D ultrafast gradient-echo sequence aligned in a dorsal plane perpendicular to the long axis of the HF. Images obtained with MRI were retrospectively analyzed by 2 observers (A and B). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were calculated with the Lin concordance correlation coefficient. Volume measurements of the HF were adjusted for intracranial volume, and a lower 95% reference limit for adjusted HF volume was calculated.

Results—There was substantial intraobserver agreement (Lin concordance correlation coefficient, 0.97 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.94 to 0.99]) but poor interobserver agreement (Lin concordance correlation coefficient, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.37 to 0.79]). The lower 95% reference limit for adjusted HF volume was 0.56 cm3 (90% CI, 0.52 to 0.60 cm3) for the right HF and 0.55 cm3 (90% CI, 0.52 to 0.58 cm3) for the left HF.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—HF volumes should be adjusted for intracranial volume to account for the large variation in canine skull size. The amount of time required to perform HF volumetry and low interobserver agreement may restrict this technique to research applications, such as the investigation of epileptic patients for hippocampal sclerosis or other cognitive disorders.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop representative MRI atlases of the canine brain and to evaluate 3 methods of atlas-based segmentation (ABS).

ANIMALS 62 dogs without clinical signs of epilepsy and without MRI evidence of structural brain disease.

PROCEDURES The MRI scans from 44 dogs were used to develop 4 templates on the basis of brain shape (brachycephalic, mesaticephalic, dolichocephalic, and combined mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic). Atlas labels were generated by segmenting the brain, ventricular system, hippocampal formation, and caudate nuclei. The MRI scans from the remaining 18 dogs were used to evaluate 3 methods of ABS (manual brain extraction and application of a brain shape–specific template [A], automatic brain extraction and application of a brain shape–specific template [B], and manual brain extraction and application of a combined template [C]). The performance of each ABS method was compared by calculation of the Dice and Jaccard coefficients, with manual segmentation used as the gold standard.

RESULTS Method A had the highest mean Jaccard coefficient and was the most accurate ABS method assessed. Measures of overlap for ABS methods that used manual brain extraction (A and C) ranged from 0.75 to 0.95 and compared favorably with repeated measures of overlap for manual extraction, which ranged from 0.88 to 0.97.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Atlas-based segmentation was an accurate and repeatable method for segmentation of canine brain structures. It could be performed more rapidly than manual segmentation, which should allow the application of computer-assisted volumetry to large data sets and clinical cases and facilitate neuroimaging research and disease diagnosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research