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  • Author or Editor: Saki Kadotani x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare measurements of left ventricular volume and function derived from 2-D transthoracic echocardiography (2DE), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and the ultrasound velocity dilution cardiac output method (UDCO) with those derived from cardiac MRI (cMRI) in healthy neonatal foals.

ANIMALS

6 healthy 1-week-old Standardbred foals.

PROCEDURES

Foals were anesthetized and underwent 2DE, TEE, and cMRI; UDCO was performed simultaneously with 2DE. Images acquired by 2DE included the right parasternal 4-chamber (R4CH), left apical 4- and 2-chamber (biplane), and right parasternal short-axis M-mode (M-mode) views. The longitudinal 4-chamber view was obtained by TEE. Measurements assessed included left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction, stroke volume (LVSV), cardiac output (CO), and cardiac index (CI). Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare measurements derived from biplane, R4CH, and M-mode images and UDCO with cMRI-derived measurements. Repeatability of measurements calculated by 3 independent reviewers was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient.

RESULTS

Compared with cMRI, all 2DE and TEE modalities underestimated LVEDV and LVESV and overestimated ejection fraction, CO, and CI. The LVSV was underestimated by the biplane, R4CH, and TEE modalities and overestimated by UDCO and M-mode methods. However, the R4CH-derived LVSV, CO, and CI were clinically comparable to cMRI-derived measures. Repeatability was good to excellent for measures derived from the biplane, R4CH, M-mode, UDCO, and cMRI methods and poor for TEE-derived measures.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

All assessed modalities yielded clinically acceptable measurements of LVEDV, LVESV, and function, but those measurements should not be used interchangeably when monitoring patient progress.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), a popular zoological companion species, frequently require sedation for procedures. A novel formulation of alfaxalone with preservatives was FDA approved for 28-day use after the vial is breached. Research has been performed in squamate species using alfaxalone without preservatives at various doses and routes of administration, but it is unknown whether preservatives affect quality of sedation or cardiac function.

ANIMALS

10 bearded dragons.

PROCEDURES

This complete crossover study evaluated the pharmacodynamic effects of alfaxalone with preservatives administered to bearded dragons via intracoelomic (ICo; n = 10), SC (10), IM (9), and IV (9) injection at 15 mg/kg.

RESULTS

Deep sedation was achieved in 9 of 10 ICo, 8 of 10 SC, 8 of 9 IM, and 9 of 9 IV administrations. Heart rate significantly decreased from baseline for ICo (P = .008; median heart rate, 46), IM (P = .018; 54), and IV (P = .033; 54) routes, but maintained within clinically acceptable limits. Respiratory rate significantly decreased from baseline for ICo (P = .011; median respiratory rate, 30), SC (P = .024; 12), IM (P = .028; 12), and IV (P = .043; 12) routes. Spontaneous ventilation was retained during all events. Time to first effects was significantly sooner with IV (0 min) administration compared with ICo (P = .02; 5 min) and IM (P = .008; 5 min). Time to loss and recovery of withdrawal, righting reflex, deep pain, and purposeful movement were not significantly different between routes of administration. End-systolic volume was the only echocardiographic parameter significantly affected by IV sedation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Sedation quality was most consistent via IV administration at 15 mg/kg, and minimal changes in cardiac function were observed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association