Objective—To determine indications for cesarean section in alpacas and llamas, and clinical management and outcome of alpacas and llamas undergoing cesarean section.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—27 alpacas and 7 llamas.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed and information gathered on signalment, anamnesis including reproductive history, physical examination findings, indication for cesarean section, anesthetic protocol, surgical technique, number of crias delivered (alive or dead), additional treatment, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was gathered via email or telephone interview with owners.
Results—Uterine torsion (13/34 [38%]) was the most common reason for cesarean section. The most common surgical approach was the left proximal lateral abdominal approach (21/34 [62%]). Thirty-four crias were delivered via cesarean section. Twenty (59%) were born alive and discharged from the hospital. Retained placenta was the most common complication observed after surgery. A significant association was found between prolonged dystocia and fetal death. Of the 34 dams that underwent cesarean section, 21 were rebred, and 19 of the 21 (90.5%) dams that were rebred became pregnant. Fifteen of 19 dams were confirmed to have ≥ 1 normal vaginal delivery with a live cria following cesarean section.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results of the present study indicated that cesarean section was an effective method of resolving dystocia in camelids without negatively affecting future fertility or parturition by the dam. Prompt referral of patients with dystocia is advised to improve fetal viability. Retained fetal membranes seemed to be a common complication of cesarean section in camelids but was not associated with negative outcomes.
A 6-year-old castrated male Bactrian camel was evaluated because of a 14hour history of oliguria and stranguria that progressed to anuria.
Perineal urethral pulsations and intermittent tail flagging with no accompanying urination were observed. Ultrasonography of the urethra revealed multiple hyperechoic foci with shadowing artifact indicative of calculi present in the penile urethra distal to the sigmoid flexure. Rectal palpation revealed a pulsating hard urethra and intact distended urinary bladder. Further clinical examination was not possible because of challenges associated with handling the camel.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Urethral catheterization through a perineal urethral incision failed to achieve urinary bladder decompression. Tube cystostomy was performed to prevent bladder rupture. Urethrocystography performed 3 days after surgery revealed a urethral rupture at the level of the prepuce. Five weeks after surgery, the camel could urinate a steady stream via the urethrotomy site. Seven weeks after surgery, the cystostomy tube was removed, and the urethrotomy site was modified to provide a permanent urethral opening via perineal urethrostomy. During 6 years of subsequent periodic follow-up by telephone, the owner reported that the camel continued to do well and urinate through the revised opening.
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first detailed description of a tube cystostomy in an adult camel with obstructive urolithiasis that includes information on the patient's long-term outcome. This technique was a viable option in the surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in this camel and may be useful for other large camelids as well.
Objective—To determine the outcome and subsequent
fertility of sheep and goats undergoing a
cesarean section because of dystocia.
Animals—85 sheep and 25 goats.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information
was obtained on signalment, history, physical
examination findings, anesthesia protocol, surgical technique,
number of lambs or kids delivered, pre- and postoperative
treatments, duration of hospitalization, and
postoperative complications. Follow-up information was
obtained through telephone conversations with owners.
Results—The proportion of sheep admitted to the
veterinary teaching hospital during the study period
that underwent a cesarean section (4.4%) was significantly
higher than the proportion of goats that did
(2.2%). Pygmy goats were overrepresented, compared
with the hospital population. The most common
reason for cesarean section was inadequate dilatation
of the cervix. The most common surgical approach
was via the left paralumbar fossa. Two hundred one
lambs and kids were delivered, of which 116 were
dead at delivery or died shortly afterward. Forty-two
of the 65 dams with 1 or more dead fetuses had been
in stage-2 labor for > 6 hours, and fetal death was significantly
associated with a prolonged duration of dystocia.
The most common complication following
surgery was retained placenta (n = 49). Use of antimicrobials
was associated with a lower rate of complications.
All 16 dams that were rebred became pregnant
and had no problems with dystocia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that cesarean section is an effective method of
resolving dystocia in sheep and goats and does not
adversely affect subsequent fertility. (J Am Vet Med
To evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of a novel helical fan beam CT system used for imaging of horses with a range of clinical distal limb problems.
Medical records were reviewed of horses presented for CT of the distal limb at 2 university-based veterinary hospitals. The following data were recorded: age, sex, breed, presenting complaint, sedation used for imaging, scanning time, procedure time, other diagnostic imaging methods performed, imaging diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and complications during imaging.
Most horses were Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Procedure times ranged from 15 to 40 minutes, with scanning completed in 15 to 45 seconds for each region of interest. The foot or pastern region was commonly scanned (88/167 [53%] horses), with navicular bone disease diagnosed in 42 of 88 (48%) horses. The fetlock region was also commonly scanned (42/167 [40%] horses), with palmar or plantar osteochondral disease diagnosed in 17 of 42 (40%) horses. Horses were compliant during scanning, and no complications with sedation or damage to the scanner occurred. A specific imaging diagnosis for the lameness was achieved more frequently with CT imaging (166/167 [99%]) than with planar digital radiography (26/58 [45%]).
The helical fan beam CT system could be used safely to scan sedated standing horses from the carpal or tarsal region distally. Subjectively, the machine was easy to operate, allowing CT to be incorporated into lameness investigations. CT imaging was very likely to result in a clinical diagnosis in horses with distal limb lameness.
To evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of a novel helical fan beam CT system used for imaging of horses with clinical problems of the head and neck.
Medical records were reviewed of horses presented for CT of the head or neck at 2 university hospitals. The following data were recorded: age, sex, breed, presenting complaint, sedation used for imaging, scanning time, procedure time, other diagnostic imaging methods performed, imaging diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and complications during imaging.
Quarter Horses and Warmbloods were the most common breeds, and the most common complaint was nasal discharge. The head (101/120 [84%] horses) was scanned most frequently, and the most common diagnoses were primary dental disease and a space-occupying lesion of the paranasal sinuses. Nuchal bursitis was the most common imaging diagnosis in the neck region. Procedure time ranged from 20 to 45 minutes with a scanning time of 30 to 40 seconds. No complications with horse sedation occurred, and horses tolerated scanning well. An imaging diagnosis was more frequently achieved with CT (109/120 [91%] horses) than with planar digital radiography (23/61 [38%] horses).
The helical fan beam CT system had fast scanning times and could be used safely for routine imaging of the teeth and sinuses in horses. The caudal extent of scanning in the neck region was limited by the shape of the horse’s neck and thorax.
To evaluate with CT the characteristics of brain tissue disruption and skull damage in cadaveric heads of adult horses caused by each of 6 firearm-ammunition combinations applied at a novel anatomic aiming point.
53 equine cadaveric heads.
Heads placed to simulate that of a standing horse were shot with 1 of 6 firearm-ammunition combinations applied at an aiming point along the external sagittal crest of the head where the 2 temporalis muscles form an inverted V. Firearm-ammunition combinations investigated included a .22-caliber long rifle pistol firing a 40-grain, plated lead, solid-core or hollow-point bullet (HPB); a semiautomatic 9-mm pistol firing a 115-grain, jacketed HPB; a semiautomatic .223-caliber carbine firing a 55-grain, jacketed HPB; a semiautomatic .45-caliber automatic Colt pistol firing a 230-grain, jacketed HPB; and a 12-gauge shotgun firing a 1-oz rifled slug. Additional heads placed in a simulated laterally recumbent position were shot with the semiautomatic 9-mm pistol–HPB combination. All heads underwent CT before and after being shot, and images were evaluated for projectile fragmentation, skull fracture, and cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem disruption.
Computed tomography revealed that all firearm-ammunition combinations caused disruption of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem that appeared sufficient to result in instantaneous death of a live horse. Hollow-point ammunition was as effective as solid-core ammunition with regard to brain tissue disruption. Brain tissue disruption was not affected by head positioning.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that the examined firearm-ammunition combinations, when applied at a novel aiming point, appear to be reasonable options for euthanasia of horses.