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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 6-year-old castrated male Bactrian camel was evaluated because of a 14hour history of oliguria and stranguria that progressed to anuria.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Perineal urethral pulsations and intermittent tail flagging with no accompanying urination were observed. Ultrasonography of the urethra revealed multiple hyperechoic foci with shadowing artifact indicative of calculi present in the penile urethra distal to the sigmoid flexure. Rectal palpation revealed a pulsating hard urethra and intact distended urinary bladder. Further clinical examination was not possible because of challenges associated with handling the camel.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Urethral catheterization through a perineal urethral incision failed to achieve urinary bladder decompression. Tube cystostomy was performed to prevent bladder rupture. Urethrocystography performed 3 days after surgery revealed a urethral rupture at the level of the prepuce. Five weeks after surgery, the camel could urinate a steady stream via the urethrotomy site. Seven weeks after surgery, the cystostomy tube was removed, and the urethrotomy site was modified to provide a permanent urethral opening via perineal urethrostomy. During 6 years of subsequent periodic follow-up by telephone, the owner reported that the camel continued to do well and urinate through the revised opening.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first detailed description of a tube cystostomy in an adult camel with obstructive urolithiasis that includes information on the patient's long-term outcome. This technique was a viable option in the surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in this camel and may be useful for other large camelids as well.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 10-week-old female Quarter Horse foal was evaluated for a right hind limb lameness associated with severe swelling of the right stifle joint. Two weeks earlier, the foal was lame when coming off pasture with the mare. It was presumed by the owner that external trauma had caused the lameness, although no skin lesions were detected. The foal had been treated with ketoprofen (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) for 10 days.

At the time of admission, the foal had a supporting limb lameness of the right hind limb (grade 4/5 1 ). The right femoropatellar joint

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 26-year-old 422-kg Arabian mixed-breed gelding was referred for evaluation of a left mandibular swelling that had progressively grown following extraction of multiple mandibular cheek teeth approximately 5 weeks earlier when the referring veterinarian had performed a radiographic examination (not shown) and diagnosed severe periodontal disease, mobility of teeth, and fractured mesial root of the right mandibular third molar tooth (M3). The referring veterinarian then digitally removed the left maxillary fourth premolar tooth (P4) and orally extracted the left mandibular P4, first molar tooth, and second molar tooth.

On referral examination, the gelding had swelling (approx 7 × 5

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine indications for cesarean section in alpacas and llamas, and clinical management and outcome of alpacas and llamas undergoing cesarean section.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—27 alpacas and 7 llamas.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed and information gathered on signalment, anamnesis including reproductive history, physical examination findings, indication for cesarean section, anesthetic protocol, surgical technique, number of crias delivered (alive or dead), additional treatment, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was gathered via email or telephone interview with owners.

Results—Uterine torsion (13/34 [38%]) was the most common reason for cesarean section. The most common surgical approach was the left proximal lateral abdominal approach (21/34 [62%]). Thirty-four crias were delivered via cesarean section. Twenty (59%) were born alive and discharged from the hospital. Retained placenta was the most common complication observed after surgery. A significant association was found between prolonged dystocia and fetal death. Of the 34 dams that underwent cesarean section, 21 were rebred, and 19 of the 21 (90.5%) dams that were rebred became pregnant. Fifteen of 19 dams were confirmed to have ≥ 1 normal vaginal delivery with a live cria following cesarean section.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results of the present study indicated that cesarean section was an effective method of resolving dystocia in camelids without negatively affecting future fertility or parturition by the dam. Prompt referral of patients with dystocia is advised to improve fetal viability. Retained fetal membranes seemed to be a common complication of cesarean section in camelids but was not associated with negative outcomes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats undergoing a cesarean section because of dystocia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—85 sheep and 25 goats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, anesthesia protocol, surgical technique, number of lambs or kids delivered, pre- and postoperative treatments, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone conversations with owners.

Results—The proportion of sheep admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital during the study period that underwent a cesarean section (4.4%) was significantly higher than the proportion of goats that did (2.2%). Pygmy goats were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. The most common reason for cesarean section was inadequate dilatation of the cervix. The most common surgical approach was via the left paralumbar fossa. Two hundred one lambs and kids were delivered, of which 116 were dead at delivery or died shortly afterward. Forty-two of the 65 dams with 1 or more dead fetuses had been in stage-2 labor for > 6 hours, and fetal death was significantly associated with a prolonged duration of dystocia. The most common complication following surgery was retained placenta (n = 49). Use of antimicrobials was associated with a lower rate of complications. All 16 dams that were rebred became pregnant and had no problems with dystocia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cesarean section is an effective method of resolving dystocia in sheep and goats and does not adversely affect subsequent fertility. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:275–279)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of a novel helical fan beam CT system used for imaging of horses with a range of clinical distal limb problems.

ANIMALS

167 horses.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed of horses presented for CT of the distal limb at 2 university-based veterinary hospitals. The following data were recorded: age, sex, breed, presenting complaint, sedation used for imaging, scanning time, procedure time, other diagnostic imaging methods performed, imaging diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and complications during imaging.

RESULTS

Most horses were Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Procedure times ranged from 15 to 40 minutes, with scanning completed in 15 to 45 seconds for each region of interest. The foot or pastern region was commonly scanned (88/167 [53%] horses), with navicular bone disease diagnosed in 42 of 88 (48%) horses. The fetlock region was also commonly scanned (42/167 [40%] horses), with palmar or plantar osteochondral disease diagnosed in 17 of 42 (40%) horses. Horses were compliant during scanning, and no complications with sedation or damage to the scanner occurred. A specific imaging diagnosis for the lameness was achieved more frequently with CT imaging (166/167 [99%]) than with planar digital radiography (26/58 [45%]).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The helical fan beam CT system could be used safely to scan sedated standing horses from the carpal or tarsal region distally. Subjectively, the machine was easy to operate, allowing CT to be incorporated into lameness investigations. CT imaging was very likely to result in a clinical diagnosis in horses with distal limb lameness.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of a novel helical fan beam CT system used for imaging of horses with clinical problems of the head and neck.

ANIMALS

120 horses.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed of horses presented for CT of the head or neck at 2 university hospitals. The following data were recorded: age, sex, breed, presenting complaint, sedation used for imaging, scanning time, procedure time, other diagnostic imaging methods performed, imaging diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and complications during imaging.

RESULTS

Quarter Horses and Warmbloods were the most common breeds, and the most common complaint was nasal discharge. The head (101/120 [84%] horses) was scanned most frequently, and the most common diagnoses were primary dental disease and a space-occupying lesion of the paranasal sinuses. Nuchal bursitis was the most common imaging diagnosis in the neck region. Procedure time ranged from 20 to 45 minutes with a scanning time of 30 to 40 seconds. No complications with horse sedation occurred, and horses tolerated scanning well. An imaging diagnosis was more frequently achieved with CT (109/120 [91%] horses) than with planar digital radiography (23/61 [38%] horses).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The helical fan beam CT system had fast scanning times and could be used safely for routine imaging of the teeth and sinuses in horses. The caudal extent of scanning in the neck region was limited by the shape of the horse’s neck and thorax.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the feasibility and repeatability of in vivo measurement of stiffness gradients by means of acoustoelastography in the superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) of clinically normal horses.

Animals—15 clinically normal horses.

Procedures—For each horse, stiffness gradient index and dispersion values for SDFTs in both forelimbs were evaluated in longitudinal orientation by use of acoustoelastography at 3 sites (5, 10, and 15 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone) by 2 observers; for each observer, data were acquired twice per site. The left forelimb was always scanned before the right forelimb. Lifting of the contralateral forelimb with the carpus flexed during image acquisition resulted in the required SDFT deformation in the evaluated limb. Interobserver repeatability, intraobserver repeatability, and right-to-left limb symmetry for stiffness gradient index and dispersion values were evaluated.

Results—Stiffness gradient index and dispersion values for SDFTs at different locations as well as effects of age or sex did not differ significantly among the 15 horses. Interclass correlation coefficients for interobserver repeatability, intraobserver repeatability, and limb symmetry revealed good to excellent agreement (intraclass correlation coefficients, > 0.74).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that acoustoelastography is a feasible and repeatable technique for measuring stiffness gradients in SDFTs in clinically normal horses, and could potentially be used to compare healthy and diseased tendon states.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research