To characterize the ultrastructure of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were harvested from the adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) and bone marrow (BMMSCs) of horses and transfected with green fluorescent protein.
MSCs from adipose tissue and bone marrow of 6 adult female Hispano-Bretón horses.
Harvested equine MSCs were cultivated and transfected with green fluores-cent protein, and the immunophenotypes of the MSCs were characterized by use of anti-CD90 and anti-CD105 monoclonal antibodies. When stable transfection of MSCs was achieved, the morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of transfected and nontransfected AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs were compared with electron microscopy.
The protocols for transfection and subsequent isolation of transfected cells with use of G418 were suitable for obtaining transfected MSCs. Transfection efficiency was 5% in AT-MSCs and 4% in BM-MSCs. Characterization of transfected and nontransfected MSCs revealed that they share immunocytochemical and morphological profiles. Expression of CD90 was significantly higher for transfected versus nontransfected AT-MSCs (97% vs 92%). Expression of CD105 was significantly lower for transfected versus nontransfected BM-MSCs (85% vs 94%). Transfected BM-MSCs had differences in organelles, compared with the other cell types, specifically including most commonly the rough endoplasmic reticulum with dilated cisternae and mitochondria.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
These findings contribute to the knowledge base of the characteristics of equine AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs and of transfected versus nontransfected equine MSCs. The data provided a valuable starting point for researchers wishing to further study the morphological characteristics of equine MSCs. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:770–776)
OBJECTIVE To assess the ability to regenerate an equine meniscus by use of a collagen repair patch (scaffold) seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue (AT).
SAMPLE 6 female Hispano-Breton horses between 4 and 7 years of age; MSCs from BM and AT were obtained for the in vitro experiment, and the horses were subsequently used for the in vivo experiment.
PROCEDURES Similarities and differences between MSCs derived from BM or AT were investigated in vitro by use of cell culture. In vivo assessment involved use of a meniscus defect and implantation on a scaffold. Horses were allocated into 2 groups. In one group, defects in the medial meniscus were treated with MSCs derived from BM, whereas in the other group, defects were treated with MSCs derived from AT. Defects were created in the contralateral stifle joint but were not treated (control samples).
RESULTS Both types of MSCs had universal stem cell characteristics. For in vivo testing, at 12 months after treatment, treated defects were regenerated with fibrocartilaginous tissue, whereas untreated defects were partially repaired or not repaired.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that MSCs derived from AT could be a good alternative to MSCs derived from BM for use in regenerative treatments. Results also were promising for a stem cell-based implant for use in regeneration in meniscal lesions.
IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Because of similarities in joint disease between horses and humans, these results could have applications in humans.