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Summary

The effects that Actinobacillus pleuro-pneumoniae bacterins containing paraffin (mineral) oil, Al(OH)3, or lecithin-base oil adjuvants had on antibody production and muscle irritation were studied. Four hundred and thirty-two pigs were vaccinated twice (864 injection sites) at a 30-day interval. To assess effects of skin surface contamination on tissue reaction, 247 of the injections were made through skin soiled with manure. Serum samples for antibody determination and tissue samples were obtained at slaughter (15 to 90 days after vaccination). Bacterins containing Al(OH)3 or 5% lecithin-base oil as an adjuvant resulted in minimal tissue irritation. Bacterins containing paraffin oil or >20% lecithin-base oil were more irritating to muscle, often resulting in a granuloma or an abscess at the injection site. Pigs given bacterins containing Al(OH)3 adjuvant had lower antibody titers than did pigs given bacterins containing paraffin oil or lecithin-base oil adjuvants.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Visceral leishmaniasis was experimentally induced in hamsters by the intracardiac inoculation of 107 amastigotes of Leishmania leishmania infantum of canine origin. At postinoculation (pi) days 7, 21, 42, and 63, hamsters were euthanatized. Body weights and total parasite numbers of the liver and spleen were determined. Gross and histologic evaluations of tissues were done. Dogs also were inoculated IV with 108 amastigotes/kg of body weight. Samples were obtained from dogs prior to infection and at biweekly pi intervals for CBC and serum chemical analysis, for lymphocyte blastogenic assay by use of blood leukocytes, and for ELISA to determine antileishmanial antibody titers. At pi week 12, dogs were necropsied; organ weights, tissue imprints of the liver and spleen, and histologic interpretations of tissues were obtained.

Hamsters developed high parasite numbers within 7 days after inoculation, at which time the total parasite numbers in the liver (3.51 × 107 amastigotes) was observed to be approximately 11 times that in the spleen (2.93 × 106). The liver had the highest parasite numbers throughout the infection period. Some infected hamsters became either cachectic and emaciated or ascitic. Two of the 10 infected hamsters died at pi days 54 and 58. Moderate to severe hepatosplenomegaly with granulomatous inflammatory reactions characterized by the presence of varied numbers of parasitized macrophages, giant cells, and hepatic Schaumann bodies were observed in infected hamsters. Infected dogs developed significantly altered hematologic values consisting of mild anemia and moderate leukopenia at pi weeks 8 to 12. Hyperproteinemia characterized by hyperglobulinemia (4.5 g/dl) was noticed at pi week 4. Serum globulin values remained high and increased to > 5.0 g/dl at pi weeks 8, 10, and 12. At pi week 4, ELISA titers were > 16. By pi week 12, all infected dogs had titers > 1,024. The dog with the highest antibody titer had the lowest number of parasites and mild pathologic changes. Evidence of lymphoproliferative response was not noticed up to pi week 12. Similarities between infected hamsters and dogs included the presence of higher parasite numbers in the liver than in other organs. The highest total parasite numbers in the spleen and liver were 1.12 × 109 and 2.86 × 109, respectively. Mild to moderate granulomatous inflammatory reactions were observed in the liver, spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes. Within 12 weeks after inoculation, parasitized macrophages were found in the dermis.

The overall results indicate that hamsters are highly susceptible to experimental infection, and that infected hamsters develop findings similar to those in natural human infections. Our findings also indicate that dogs are susceptible and develop high antileishmanial titers that correspond to low parasite numbers. This suggests the possible role of antibody in determining the seriousness of disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantitatively and qualitatively compare electroretinography (ERG) recordings in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs.

Animals—Six 6-month-old Beagles.

Procedures—A brief ERG protocol for dogs was used. Following 1-minute and subsequent 5-minute dark adaptation, mixed rod-cone responses were recorded bilaterally with a handheld multispecies ERG device with dogs in each of 3 states of consciousness: awake, sedated (dexmedetomidine and butorphanol), and anesthetized (atropine and hydromorphone, followed by propofol and midazolam and anesthetic maintenance with isoflurane). Low- and high-frequency noise levels were quantified via Fourier analysis, and the effect of consciousness state on signal amplitude, implicit time, and noise was analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA. In addition, 13 veterinary ophthalmologists who were unaware of the dogs’ consciousness states subjectively graded the ERG recording quality, and scores for each tracing were compared.

Results—ERG amplitudes were highest in awake dogs and lowest in anesthetized dogs. Implicit times were shortest in awake dogs and longest in anesthetized dogs. Differences in b-wave amplitudes and a-wave implicit times were significant. Neither low- nor high-frequency noise levels differed significantly among consciousness states. Furthermore, no significant differences were identified among observers’ scores assigned to ERG tracings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia and sedation resulted in significant attenuation and delay of ERG responses in dogs. Chemical restraint of dogs had no consistently significant effect on low- or high-frequency noise levels or on observer perception of signal quality.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The prevalence of mycoplasmal and ureaplasmal recovery from tracheobronchial lavage specimens and the prevalence of mycoplasmal recovery from pharyngeal swab specimens from dogs with (n = 38) or without (n = 26) pulmonary disease were determined. Similar mycoplasmal recovery rates were found for tracheobronchial lavage specimens from dogs ≥ 1 year old with (21%) or without (25%) pulmonary disease. Prevalence of mycoplasmal recovery from tracheobronchial lavages was significantly associated with pulmonary disease among dogs < 1 year old (P = 0.04), and with dogs that had concurrent Bordetella (P = 0.006) and Streptococcus (P = 0.05) isolations. Among dogs with pulmonary disease, mycoplasmas were significantly (P = 0.02) more prevalent in dogs with septic inflammation than in dogs with nonseptic inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree. Ureaplasmas were only isolated from a tracheobronchial lavage specimen of 1 dog with pulmonary disease and from none of the dogs without pulmonary disease. Most dogs with (84%) and all dogs without pulmonary disease had mycoplasmas isolated from the pharynx.

Seemingly, mycoplasmas are part of the normal pharyngeal flora of most dogs and normal inhabitants of the lower airway in about a fifth to a fourth of the canine population ≥ 1 year old. Dogs < 1 year old with pulmonary disease and dogs with concurrent Bordetella or tracheobronchial streptococcal isolations may be more susceptible to mycoplasmal colonization of the lower airways. Seemingly, ureaplasmas are rarely associated with pulmonary disease, and are not normal inhabitants of the trachea and bronchi of dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The prevalence of mycoplasmal and ureaplasmal recovery from tracheobronchial lavage specimens and prevalence of mycoplasmal recovery from pharyngeal swab specimens from cats with (28) or without (18) pulmonary disease were determined. Mycoplasmas were recovered from tracheobronchial lavage specimens in 21% of cats with pulmonary disease, but in no cats without pulmonary disease; this difference is signficant (P = 0.04). Mycoplasmal recovery from tracheobronchial lavage specimens was not significantly associated with concurrent Pasteurella spp isolation, septic inflammation, or bronchitis. Ureaplasmas were only isolated from a tracheobronchial lavage specimen in 1 cat with pulmonary disease and in no cats without pulmonary disease. Similar mycoplasmal recovery rates were found for pharyngeal swab specimens from cats with (39%) or without (35%) pulmonary disease.

Seemingly, mycoplasmas are part of the normal pharyngeal flora in approximately a third of the feline population, but mycoplasmas are not normal inhabitants of the lower respiratory tract in cats. It is unknown whether mycoplasmas isolated from tracheobronchial lavage specimens in cats with pulmonary disease are primary pathogens or opportunistic invaders. Seemingly, ureaplasmas are seldom associated with pulmonary disease in cats, and are not normal inhabitants of the trachea and bronchi of cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A client-owned 2-year-old 1.8-kg (4-lb) male pet Rouen duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) was evaluated because of severe swelling around the left eye following traumatic injury to the upper and lower eyelids and 2 associated surgeries that resulted in the removal of the entire upper and lower eyelid margins.

CLINICAL FINDINGS At initial evaluation, ankyloblepharon of the left eye was observed, with no upper or lower eyelid margins and a large, round, fluctuant subcutaneous mass over the left orbit. Orbital exploration and histologic examination revealed a benign cyst consisting of fibrous tissue, conjunctiva, and skeletal muscle bundles. Bacterial culture of cystic fluid yielded few Staphylococcus delphini.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Excision of the cyst and evisceration of the left globe were performed, and once daily treatment with orally administered enrofloxacin suspension (12.6 mg/kg [5.7 mg/lb]) and meloxicam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) was initiated. Over the next 4 days, the cyst redeveloped and progressively enlarged. Accumulated fluid was aspirated from the cyst, and 20 mg of gentamicin was injected intraorbitally with ultrasound guidance. Over the subsequent 27-month period, no recurrence of clinical signs or adverse effects were reported by the owner.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of cyst formation after adnexal injury and evisceration in birds and its successful treatment with intralesional gentamicin injection. Findings emphasized the importance of preserving lacrimal puncta during adnexal or eye removal surgeries in birds. Intralesional injection of gentamicin with the goal of destroying fluid-producing cells may be a safe and effective way to treat intraorbital cysts in birds and other species, although additional research would be required to confirm this.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare the effect of a single parenteral injection of tilmicosin with that of a single dose of a long-acting oxytetracycline as treatment in the early stages of naturally acquired undifferentiated respiratory tract disease in young dairy calves.

Design

Prospective clinical trial, randomized block design.

Animals

40 dairy calves.

Procedure

78 calves from 5 farms were examined weekly until 3 months old. When respiratory tract disease was diagnosed by a veterinarian, the calf was assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Transtracheal wash samples were acquired to characterize the pathogens. The veterinarian, who was unaware of treatment assignments, examined calves for 3 days after treatment and evaluated severity, using a scoring system. Growth rates were measured.

Results

On the basis of response to initial treatment, relapse rates, and effect on growth rates, the antibiotics were determined to be equally effective. Severity of clinical disease was significantly (P < 0.03) less for the tilmicosin-treated calves on days 2 and 3 after treatment. Findings from analysis of transtracheal wash samples indicated Pasteurella multocida (25/40), P haemolytica (4/40), Haemophilus somnus (4/40), Actinomyces pyogenes (3/40), and Aspergillus sp (2/40). Mycoplasma was isolated in association with bacterial isolates in 22 calves.

Clinical Implications

Tilmicosin and oxytetracycline are effective in treatment of respiratory tract disease in young calves, even when Mycoplasma spp are involved. Tilmicosin is more effective in resolving clinical signs. Early treatment of dairy calves with respiratory tract disease may decrease detrimental effects on growth.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association