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Summary

Twenty-four 10-month-old Polled Hereford heifers were inoculated sc with live cells of one of the following strains of Brucella abortus: S19Δ31K (n = 4), S19ΔSOD (n = 4), RB51 (n = 4), and strain 19 (n = 6); controls (n = 6) were given saline solution. Heifers given the deletion mutants S19Δ31K and S19ΔSOD, and those given strain 19 developed antibody responses to B abortus and cutaneous reactions to brucellin. Heifers given strain RB51 did not develop antibodies that reacted in the standard tube agglutination test, but sera reacted in tests, using an antibody dot-blot assay containing RB51 antigen. The S19Δ31K and S19ΔSOD strains of B abortus isolated from lymph node tissue after vaccination did not differ genetically from the master stock strain. All heifers were bred naturally at 16 to 17 months of age, and were challenge-exposed intraconjunctivally with virulent B abortus strain 2308 during the fifth month of pregnancy. All vaccinated heifers were protected (ie, none aborted and none had B abortus isolated from their tissues after parturition). Calves born from vaccinated dams were free of B abortus. Antibody responses in heifers after challenge exposure were an indicator of immunity. All 5 control heifers (nonvaccinated) developed serum antibodies after challenge exposure; 3 aborted, and 1 delivered a small, weak calf at 8.5 months of gestation. Thus, live mutant strains of B abortus can induce protective immunity when given at 10 months of age, and strain RB51 is a strong candidate for further testing.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Forty-eight cattle were used in 4 experiments; 6-week-old calves in experiments 1-3 (n = 24) and 10-month-old heifers in experiment 4 (n = 24). In experiments 1-3, 7 groups of 3 calves each were inoculated sc with 5 strains of Brucella abortus: virulent strain 2308 (2 groups), vaccine strain 19 (2 groups), and mutant strains RB51, 19Δ31K, and 19ΔSOD. Sera and lymph node tissues were examined at 2-week intervals for evidence of infection. At postinoculation (pi) week 12, 2 calves in each group were given dexamethasone for 5 days. Calves were then euthanatized and lymphoid tissue, spleen, liver, and bone marrow were examined for evidence of B abortus. Calves given strain 2308 had large numbers of bacteria in their lymph nodes, marked granulomatous lymphadenitis in the deep cortex, and loss of lymphoid cells in superficial cortical areas. In addition, they had high serum antibody titers at pi week 16. Calves given strain 19, or genetic mutants derived from strain 19, cleared bacteria from lymph nodes more rapidly, had less lymphoid destruction, and developed antibody titers that did not persist for 16 weeks. The RB51 strain (rough) was cleared most rapidly from lymphoid tissues and induced serum antibody responses only to the core of the lipopolysaccharide molecule. Treatment of calves with dexamethasone did not cause B abortus to reappear in tissues of any calves, nor did serum antibody titers increase.

In experiment 4, designed to compare the effects of age, 4 groups (n = 4) of 10-month-old heifers were given 1 B abortus strain each (19, RB51, 19Δ31K, or 19ΔSOD), using the same methods. Results of bacteriologic culturing and antibody responses were similar to those in the calves, except that strain RB51 persisted longer in heifers. Results of these studies indicated that, in cattle, the genetically engineered deletion mutants of B abortus do not cause unusual lesions, do have characteristics that closely resemble the parental strain, and could be candidates for use in a live vaccine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify underlying medical conditions in cats with a presumptive diagnosis of psychogenic alopecia.

Design—Case series.

Animals—21 adult cats referred with a presumptive diagnosis of psychogenic alopecia.

Procedures—A detailed behavior and dermatologic questionnaire was completed by the primary caregiver, and complete behavioral and dermatologic examinations were performed. A standard diagnostic testing protocol that included cytologic examination of skin scrapings, fungal culture of hairs, evaluation of responses to parasiticides and an exclusion diet, assessment for atopy and endocrinopathies, and histologic examination of skin biopsy specimens was used to establish a definitive diagnosis in all cats. Cats that did not respond to an elimination diet were treated with methylprednisolone acetate to determine whether pruritus was a factor.

Results—Medical causes of pruritus were identified in 16 (76%) cats. Only 2 (10%) cats were found to have only psychogenic alopecia, and an additional 3 (14%) cats had a combination of psychogenic alopecia and a medical cause of pruritus. An adverse food reaction was diagnosed in 12 (57%) cats and was suspected in an additional 2. All cats with histologic evidence of inflammation in skin biopsy specimens were determined to have a medical condition, but of 6 cats without histologic abnormalities, 4 had an adverse food reaction, atopy, or a combination of the 2, and only 2 had psychogenic alopecia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that psychogenic alopecia is overdiagnosed in cats. Thorough diagnostic testing should be done before ascribing a behavioral cause to hair loss in cats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The small intestine of healthy adult Beagles was examined to determine whether subclinical abnormalities might exist that would be relevant to the use of Beagles in pharmacologic studies. Duodenal juice was obtained for qualitative and quantitative bacteriologic examinations; jejunal mucosa was taken for morphologic and biochemical investigation, and intestinal permeability was assessed by quantification of 24-hour urinary excretion of 51Cr-labeled edta after its oral administration. Comparisons were made with findings in healthy adult dogs of other breeds that served as controls. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was found in 14 of the 21 Beagles examined, and represented a mixed flora that included obligate anaerobic bacteria in 8 dogs and exclusively aerobic bacteria in 6 dogs. Intestinal permeability (percentage urinary recovery of 51Cr-labeled edta; mean ± sem) was considerably higher (P < 0.01) in Beagles with anaerobic overgrowth (37.6 ± 3.2%) or aerobic overgrowth (30.5 ± 4.8%), compared with Beagles with no overgrowth (17.3 ± 1.6%) and with controls (11.1 ± 1.0%). In Beagles, significant (r = 0.54, P = 0.03) correlation was observed between 24-hour urinary recovery of 51Cr-labeled edta and bacterial numbers in duodenal juice. Morphologic changes in jejunal mucosa were minimal, and specific activities of brush border enzymes were not significantly decreased, apart from aminopeptidase N, but activities of lysosomal and endoplasmic reticular marker enzymes were higher in the 3 groups of Beagles with anaerobic, aerobic, or no overgrowth, compared with controls. These findings indicate that apparently healthy Beagles can have bacterial overgrowth in the proximal portion of the small intestine, which is associated with enhanced intestinal permeability and may not be suspected by clinical examination or routine histologic examination of mucosa.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate 3 doses of gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DPTA) for hepatic CT and cholangiography in cats and to determine optimal timing for hepatobiliary image acquisition and evaluation of the contrast-enhanced hepatobiliary anatomy.

ANIMALS

6 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats were anesthetized; sequential CT scans were performed 0, 5, 25, 45, 65, and 85 minutes after IV administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA at low (0.0125 mmol/kg), medium (0.1 mmol/kg), and high (0.3 mmol/kg) doses. Hepatobiliary enhancement for each dose was objectively assessed over time and by use of a subjective semiquantitative visual assessment score.

RESULTS

No contrast-related adverse effects were detected. Each increase in dose of contrast medium resulted in a significant increase in HU across the hepatobiliary system. The liver had a significantly higher number of HU at 45 minutes, with homogenous enhancement at all doses of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced cystic and bile duct HU were significantly higher and maximal at 65 minutes. Contrast-enhanced gallbladder HU did not plateau by 85 minutes. At a high dose of contrast medium, 12 of 60 (20%) biliary tract scores indicated no enhancement, 34 (57%) indicated poor enhancement, and 14 (23%) indicated moderate enhancement. No cat had excellent enhancement of the biliary tract at any dose.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Gd-EOB-DTPA–enhanced hepatic CT and cholangiography in cats were safely performed and provided good hepatic enhancement but poor to moderate enhancement of the biliary tract. This technique may be useful for assessing the liver parenchyma in cats, but its value for assessing the biliary tract is questionable.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A genomic library to Eperythrozoon suis dnawas constructed in λ gt11, and from this library, E suis clone KSU-2 was identified as a potential diagnostic probe. In hybridization experiments that used 100-μl samples of blood collected in chaotropic salt solutions, the KSU-2 probe hybridized strongly with purified E suis organisms and blood samples from splenectomized swine that were parasitized with E suis. However, the probe under stringent conditions did not give radiographic indications of hybridizing with equine blood dna, bovine blood dna infected with Anaplasma marginale, canine blood dna infected with Ehrlichia canis, feline blood dna infected with Haemobartonella felis, or uninfected swine blood dna.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the suitability and estimate the sensitivity of an immunohistochemical (IHC) test for disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in biopsy specimens of rectoanal mucosa–associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) for diagnosis of scrapie in sheep.

Animals—762 sheep at high risk for having scrapie and indemnified by the National Scrapie Eradication Program.

Procedures—The IHC test for PrPSc was applied to 2 RAMALT and 2 third-eyelid biopsy specimens and a postmortem RAMALT specimen from each sheep. Results were compared with those of a reference test in which results for tissues from obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes, tonsil, or both were considered in parallel.

Results—The reference test identified 139 sheep as having scrapie. Biopsy-related complications occurred in 3 sheep. Sensitivity of the IHC test in RAMALT ranged from 85.3% to 89.4%, depending on the anatomic location from which RAMALT was obtained. Results for the test applied to 1 RAMALT specimen were similar to results interpreted in parallel for 2 third-eyelid specimens (sensitivity, 87.0%). The proportion of inconclusive test results attributable to insufficient lymphoid follicles in biopsy specimens was lower when considering results for 2 RAMALT specimens in parallel (10.1%) than when considering results for 2 third-eyelid specimens in parallel (23.7%). Specimens of RAMALT that were inappropriately collected from an area caudal to the rectoanal interface yielded a high proportion of inconclusive results (33.3% to 50.0%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The IHC test for PrPSc in RAMALT was an effective means of detecting subclinical scrapie in live, high-risk sheep.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize findings in Shih Tzus with progressive superficial necrolytic dermatitis and degenerative vacuolar hepatopathy consistent with hepatocutaneous syndrome.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 31 Shih Tzus.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to obtain information on signalment, history, treatment, outcome, and results of clinicopathologic testing, abdominal ultrasonography, and histologic examination of skin and liver specimens. A pedigree analysis was performed.

RESULTS There were 16 males and 15 females. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 8 years (range, 5 to 14 years). Common clinical signs included lethargy, inappetence, weight loss, and lameness. Twenty-five dogs had cutaneous lesions consistent with hepatocutaneous syndrome; the remaining 6 initially only had hepatic abnormalities, but 3 of the 6 subsequently developed cutaneous lesions. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities included microcytosis (15/24 [63%] dogs) and high serum alkaline phosphatase activity (24/24 [100%] dogs). Hepatic ultrasonographic findings included a hyperechoic or heteroechoic appearance to the parenchyma with innumerable hypoechoic nodules. Histologic hepatic lesions consisted of degenerative vacuolar (glycogen and lipid) hepatopathy associated with minimally fibrotic to nonfibrotic, noninflammatory, proliferative nodules. Pedigree analysis confirmed a common ancestry in 12 of 18 dogs. Median survival time was 3 months (range, 1 to 36 months).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that HCS may have a heritable component in Shih Tzus, although the condition may also be identified in Shih Tzus without affected relatives. Clinical, clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and histologic abnormalities in affected Shih Tzus were similar to those previously reported for dogs of other breeds with HCS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:802–813)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize aminoaciduria and plasma amino acid concentrations in dogs with hepatocutaneous syndrome (HCS).

ANIMALS 20 client-owned dogs of various breeds and ages.

PROCEDURES HCS was definitively diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsy specimens (n = 12), gross and histologic appearance of skin lesions (4), and examination of skin and liver biopsy specimens (2) and presumptively diagnosed on the basis of cutaneous lesions with compatible clinicopathologic and hepatic ultrasonographic (honeycomb or Swiss cheese pattern) findings (2). Amino acid concentrations in heparinized plasma and urine (samples obtained within 8 hours of each other) were measured by use of ion exchange chromatography. Urine creatinine concentration was used to normalize urine amino acid concentrations. Plasma amino acid values were compared relative to mean reference values; urine-corrected amino acid values were compared relative to maximal reference values.

RESULTS All dogs had generalized hypoaminoacidemia, with numerous amino acid concentrations < 50% of mean reference values. The most consistent and severe abnormalities involved glutamine, proline, cysteine, and hydroxyproline, and all dogs had marked lysinuria. Urine amino acids exceeding maximum reference values (value > 1.0) included lysine, 1-methylhistidine, and proline.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hypoaminoacidemia in dogs with HCS prominently involved amino acids associated with the urea cycle and synthesis of glutathione and collagen. Marked lysinuria and prolinuria implicated dysfunction of specific amino acid transporters and wasting of amino acids essential for collagen synthesis. These findings may provide a means for tailoring nutritional support and for facilitating HCS diagnosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research