Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 40 items for

  • Author or Editor: S. E. Smith x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate survival time for dogs with small intestinal adenocarcinoma (SIACA) following tumor excision with or without adjuvant chemotherapy and to identify factors associated with survival time.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with a nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 29 client-owned dogs with surgically resected, histologically diagnosed SIACA.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data collected regarding dog signalment; clinical signs; physical examination findings; PCV; serum total solids concentration; diagnostic imaging results; tumor size, location, and histologic characteristics (serosal extension, lymphatic invasion, surgical margins, and lymph node metastasis); type of adjuvant chemotherapy; NSAID administration; and survival time. Variables were assessed for associations with survival time and hazard rate via Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses.

RESULTS Overall median survival time for dogs with SIACA following tumor excision was 544 days (95% confidence interval, 369 to 719 days). Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, the 1- and 2-year survival rates were 60% and 36%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, only age category was an independent predictor of survival over the follow-up period. Dogs < 8 years of age had a significantly longer median survival time (1,193 days) than dogs ≥ 8 years (488 days). Lymph node metastasis, adjuvant chemotherapy, NSAID administration, and other assessed variables were not associated with survival time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that SIACA in dogs carries a fair prognosis following excision, even when lymph node metastasis is present. Prospective studies are warranted to better characterize the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy or NSAID administration on survival time.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

During 1998, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 7,961 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a decrease of 6.5% from 8,509 cases in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings reported in 1997. More than 92% (7,358 cases) were in wild animals, whereas > 7.5% (603 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93% in wild animals and 7% in domestic species in 1997). Decreases were evident in all of the major contributing species groups, with the exception of skunks and bats. The relative contributions of the major groups to the total reported for 1998 were raccoons (44.0%; 3,502 cases), skunks (28.5%; 2,272), bats (12.5%; 992), foxes (5.5%; 435), cats (3.5%; 282), cattle (1.5%; 116), and dogs (11.5%; 113). No further discernable westward extension of the epizootic of rabies in raccoons in Ohio was reported. Twelve of the 19 states enzootic for the raccoon variant of the rabies virus and the District of Columbia reported decreased numbers of cases of rabies during 1998, compared with 13 states and the District of Columbia that reported increases during 1997. Three states, Rhode Island (143.2%), Massachusetts (77.2%), and New Hampshire (69.4%), reported increases of > 50% during 1998, compared with totals reported for 1997. In Texas, the number of cases of rabies associated with enzootic canine variants of the rabies virus remained greatly diminished; however, overall totals of reported cases of rabies increased in Texas and 12 other states where skunks are the major terrestrial reservoir of rabies. At the national level, the total of 82 reported cases of rabies among horses and mules was greater than that reported for any year since 1981 (88 cases) and represented a 74.5% increase, compared with the total for 1997. The 992 cases of rabies reported in bats during 1998 were the greatest proportionate contribution by bats since 1990. Reported cases of rabies in cats (282), dogs (113), and cattle (116) decreased 6.0%, 10.3%, and 4.9%, respectively. One indigenously acquired case of rabies reported in a human being during 1998 was the result of infection with a rabies virus variant associated with silver-haired and eastern pipistrelle bats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In 1997, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 8,509 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 93% (7,899) were wild animals, whereas 7% (610) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases increased 19.4% from that of 1996 (7,128 cases). Increases were apparent in each of the major species groups, with the exception of cattle. The relative contributions of these groups to the total reported for 1997 were as follows: raccoons (50.5%; 4,300 cases), skunks (24.0%; 2,040), bats (11.3%; 958), foxes (5.3%; 448), cats (3.5%; 300), dogs (1.5%; 126), and cattle (1.4%; 122). The 958 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 29.3% increase over the total reported for 1996 and the greatest number reported since 1984, with cases reported by 46 of the 48 contiguous states. The epizootic of rabies in raccoons expanded into Ohio in 1997 and now includes 19 states and the District of Columbia. Thirteen states, where rabies in raccoons is enzootic, reported increases over 1996 in total numbers of reported cases. Among these, New York (1,264 cases), North Carolina (879), Virginia (690), and Maryland (619) reported the greatest numbers of cases. Five states reported increases that exceeded 50%, compared with cases reported in 1996: Ohio (673.3%; 15 cases in 1996 to 116 in 1997), Massachusetts (144.3%; 115 to 281), South Carolina (97.9%; 96 to 190), Connecticut (97.4%; 274 to 541), and Maine (86.3%; 131 to 244). Cases of rabies associated with foci of rabies in foxes in west central Texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern Texas continued to decline, with this state reporting 78.3% fewer rabid foxes (13 cases), 26.7% fewer rabid dogs (11), and 63.2% fewer rabid coyotes (7) during 1997, compared with 1996. Reported cases of rabies in cats (300) and dogs (126) increased 12.8% and 13.5%, respectively, whereas cases in cattle (122) decreased by 6.9%. Thirty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported increases in rabies in animals during 1997, compared with decreases reported by 31 states and the District of Columbia in 1996. One state (Mississippi; 5 cases) remained unchanged. Hawaii was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1997. Four indigenously acquired cases of rabies reported in human beings were the result of infection with rabies virus variants associated with bats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In 1996, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 7,124 cases of rabies in non-human animals and 4 cases in human beings to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 92% (6,550 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (574 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases decreased 9.6% from that of 1995 (7,881 cases). Although much of the decline was the result of fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons, fewer cases were also reported among most groups of animals. Numbers of cases associated with separate epizootics of rabies in foxes in west central Texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern Texas attributable to canine variants have declined, with 56.2% fewer rabid foxes (60), 72.7% fewer rabid dogs (15), and 76.3% fewer rabid coyotes (19) during 1996, compared with cases of rabies reported among these same species during 1995. Nationally, the number of reported rabid bats (741) decreased 5.8%, with cases reported by 46 of the 48 contiguous states. Four Eastern Seaboard states, enzootic for the raccoon variant of the rabies virus, reported noteworthy increases in total numbers of reported cases: Maine (29.7%; 101 cases in 1995 to 131 in 1996), Maryland (44.2%; 441 to 636), North Carolina (59.0%; 466 to 741), and Virginia (33.3%; 459 to 612). Increases were also reported by Florida (6.4%; 251 to 267) and Georgia (3.1 %; 294 to 303). Cats continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid, but reported cases of rabies in cats (266), cattle (131), and dogs (111) decreased by 7.6%, 3.7%, and 24.0%, respectively. Thirty-one states and the District of Columbia reported decreases in rabies in animals during 1996, compared with 18 states and Puerto Rico in 1995. Hawaii was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1996. Two indigenously acquired cases of rabies reported in human beings were the result of infection with rabies virus variants associated with bats, whereas the remaining 2 human rabies infections were acquired outside the United States, and the variants identified were consistent with those associated with rabid dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate epidemiologic features of rabies virus variants in dogs and cats in the United States during 1999 and assess the role of bat-associated variants.

Design—Epidemiologic survey.

Sample Population—Rabies viruses from 78 dogs and 230 cats.

Procedure—Brain specimens from rabid dogs and cats were submitted for typing of rabies virus. Historical information, including ownership and vaccination status, was obtained for each animal. Specimens were typed by use of indirect fluorescent antibody assay or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis.

Results—Nearly all animals were infected with the predicted terrestrial rabies virus variant associated with the geographic location of the submission. A batassociated variant of rabies virus was found in a single cat from Maryland. More than half (53%) of submitted animals were classified as owned animals, and most had no known history of vaccination. One vaccination failure was reported in a dog that did not receive a booster dose of rabies vaccine after exposure to a possibly rabid animal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bat-associated rabies virus variants were not a common cause of rabies in dogs and cats during 1999. Vaccine failures were uncommon during the study period. Because most rabid dogs and cats were unvaccinated and were owned animals rather than strays, educational campaigns targeting owners may be useful. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1939–1942)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To examine, in horses, the disposition and excretion of the active metabolite 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA) of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory prodrug nabumetone.

Design

Pharmacokinetic analysis of 6MNA after oral administration of nabumetone and IV administration of 6MNA.

Procedure

Using a crossover design, 5 horses were orally administered 3.7 mg of nabumetone/kg of body weight. After a 3-week washout period, 4 horses were administered 2.5 mg of 6MNA/kg, IV.

Results

Absorption of nabumetone from the gastrointestinal tract and its metabolism to 6MNA had a median appearance half-life of 0.88 hour. The elimination half-life was 11 hours. Area under the plasma concentration time curve for 6MNA after oral administration of nabumetone was 120.6 mg/h/L. A dose of 2.5 mg/kg of 6MNA administered IV resulted in plasma concentration nearly equivalent to that induced by the orally administered dose. Disposition of 6MNA was modeled as a one-compartment, first-order elimination. The area under the plasma concentration time curve for IV administration of 6MNA was 117.0 mg/h/L, and the specific volume of distribution was 0.247 L/kg. The distribution half-life and the elimination half-life were 0.56 and 7.90 hours, respectively. Percentage of total dose recovered in urine for the 36-hour collection period after the oral and IV administrations was 7.4 and 5.3%, respectively.

Conclusions

Metabolism of nabumetone to 6MNA, as reported in other species, also occurs in horses. There were a number of additional metabolites of nabumetone in urine that could not be fully identified and characterized. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:517–521)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A murine IgM monoclonal antibody, which recognizes dog erythrocyte antigen (dea) 1.1, has been produced. The antibody correctly identified canine rbc possessing dea 1.1 in a panel of rbc typed by an independent laboratory. Reactivity of the monoclonal antibody was compared with canine anti-dea 1.1 antiserum with 163 rbc samples from 145 dogs. Results of agglutination tests with the 2 reagents were in agreement for all samples. A card agglutination test that uses the monoclonal antibody with blood is described. A monoclonal antibody-based test should facilitate blood typing for dea 1.1 in clinical practice.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Radiographic and surgical findings were compared in 123 cattle suspected of having traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Radiography of the reticulum proved to be a sensitive test for detection of a foreign body (fb). An abnormal fb position on a radiograph was a good predictor of fb perforation. If an fb was fully attached to a magnet, it was unlikely to be perforating the reticular wall. When abnormal reticulum size, abnormal reticulum location, and gas shadows adjacent to the reticulum were found simultaneously on a radiograph, hepatic or perireticular abscess was likely. Reticular radiography proved to be a useful diagnostic aid in cattle suspected of having traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A new serotype of calicivirus was isolated from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with severe vesicular disease. Neutralizing antibodies were found in 27 of 82 (32.9%) serum samples from California sea lions and in 15 of 146 (10.3%) serum samples from Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) tested. The seropositive animals were widely dispersed along the margins of the eastern Pacific basin, from the Bering Sea to the Santa Barbara Channel. Seropositive samples were found from as early as 1976 through the present time. This new calicivirus serotype, San Miguel sea lion virus type 13, was inoculated into weaned pigs, resulting in induction of severe vesicular disease, which spread to all pigs, including uninoculated pen contacts. Virus was continually shed by most of the pigs throughout the 2-week duration of the experiment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research