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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the ability of a proprietary antagonist of E-type prostanoid receptor (EP) 4, grapiprant, and carprofen to attenuate lameness attributable to urate-induced synovitis in dogs.

ANIMALS

5 purpose-bred hound-cross dogs.

PROCEDURES

A blinded, 3-way crossover study was performed. Dogs received each of 3 treatments (L-766, a proprietary antagonist of EP4; 4.0 mg/kg), grapiprant (an antagonist of EP4; 2.0 mg/kg), and carprofen (4.4 mg/kg); dogs received 4 doses of each treatment (14 and 2 hours before and 22 and 46 hours after urate injection). Synovitis was induced by intra-articular injection of sodium urate. Measurements (vertical ground reaction forces and clinical lameness scores) were obtained immediately before (0 hours; baseline) and 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after sodium urate injection. All data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA.

RESULTS

Lameness scores at 6 hours were significantly higher than baseline lameness scores for all treatments. Lameness scores for the grapiprant treatment remained significantly higher at 12 and 24 hours, compared with baseline lameness scores. Lameness scores for the carprofen treatment were significantly lower than lameness scores for the grapiprant treatment at 6, 12, and 24 hours. Analysis of peak vertical force and vertical impulse data revealed a pattern similar to that for lameness scores. Treatment with L-766 resulted in a significantly higher vertical impulse at 48 hours than did treatment with carprofen or grapiprant.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In these dogs, carprofen was the most effective treatment for attenuating lameness induced by injection of sodium urate, and grapiprant was the least effective treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the vascular supply and quantitatively compare the periosteal and endosteal callus formed during fracture healing.

Design

36 pigeons were allotted to 2 groups. In each bird, 1 humerus was surgically osteotomized. The wing with the fractured humerus in birds of the first group was infused with a microparticle barium solution, and the humerus was harvested for angiography. Pigeons of the second group were injected with the labels oxytetracycline and calcein. The fractured humerus in each of these birds was harvested for histomorphometry.

Animals

36 nine-month-old pigeons, consisting of 19 male and 17 female birds.

Procedure

1 humerus from each of the 36 pigeons was osteotomized in the center of the bone by use of an obstetrical wire. All fractured wings were placed in a figure-of-8 bandage after surgery. The specimens harvested for angiography were decalcified, radiographed, and sectioned for H&E-stamed tissue slides. Humeruses harvested for histomorphometry were cross-sectioned for tissue slides, which were measured, using a morphometric analyzing system for original and new bone areas.

Results

A continuous intramedullary circulation was not present at any point in the healing process, although 2 of the 42-day-old fractures had a bridging callus. Quantitatively, the periosteal surface formed the largest amount of callus, though the endosteal surface was also active.

Conclusions

Reformation of the intramedullary circulation may not be imperative for osseous union of the pigeon humerus. Fluorochrome labels cannot be accurately measured at the fracture site. However, subjective evaluation of the endosteal surface indicates it is active during the fracture-healing process even though the periosteal surface provides the largest amount of callus formation.

Clinical Relevance

Figure-of-8 coaptation is contraindicated for humeral fractures. The endosteal surface's contribution to the healing process should be considered when avian humeral fractures are stabilized. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1010–1015)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To identify the vascular supply and resorption/formation activity of the humerus of pigeons.

Design

Pigeons were injected with the fluorochrome label oxytetracycline and, 5 days later, with the label calcein. 5 days after administration of the second fluorochrome, a wing from each bird was infused with a microparticle barium solution immediately after euthanasia and the chosen humerus was prepared for angiography while the opposite was prepared for histomorphometry.

Animals

17 nine-month-old pigeons, consisting of 9 male and 8 female birds.

Procedure

At euthanasia, 1 wing was chosen for infusion and the barium solution was injected through a catheter in the brachiocephalic artery. Both humeruses were harvested. The infused humerus was decalcified, radiographed, and sectioned for H&E staining. The opposite humerus was sectioned and measured by use of a morphometric analyzing system to determine cross-sectional area, endosteal and periosteal perimeter, and percentage of perimeter containing a single and/or double label.

Results

All pigeons had an intramedullary arterial supply. The bones had a quiescent appearance histologically, consisting principally of lamellar bone with few osteospecialized cells, resorption surfaces, or osteons. Less than 10% of either the periosteal or endosteal surface acquired a fluorochrome label.

Conclusions

The intramedullary vascular supply of the humerus is similar in structure to the vascular supply to mammalian bones. The humerus is, however, a quiescent bone in the sexually mature pigeon, with little remodeling activity present.

Clinical Relevance

The intramedullary blood supply may have an important role in the healing of humeral fractures in avian species. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:982–986)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To assess the efficacy of etodolac in improving hind limb function in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joint.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

100 client-owned dogs with clinical signs of osteoarthritis of the hip joint.

Procedure

Baseline ground reaction forces and subjective assessment scores were collected twice at a 7- to 10-day interval. After meeting entrance criteria, dogs were randomly assigned to the following 3 treatment groups: control group (0 mg of etodolac), low-dosage group (135 mg of etodolac), or high-dosage group (450 mg of etodolac). Dogs were treated once daily for 8 days, and gait analysis was repeated on day 8.

Results

On day 8 of treatment, vertical impulse and vertical peak force values for low- and high-dosage groups were significantly greater than baseline values within each group. On day 8, vertical impulse values from the high-dosage group were significantly greater than values from the low-dosage group. Vertical peak forces for the low- and high-dosage groups were significantly greater at 8 days than that of the control group. Analysis of the effect of evaluation center (site) on treatment outcome did not reveal a significant effect.

Clinical Implications

Etodolac administration for 8 days improved ground reaction forces in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Improvement in force transmission was dosage dependent for the primary outcome measurement (vertical impulse). Results of the study indicate that etodolac is well tolerated by dogs, with minimal adverse effects during an 8-day treatment period. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:206–210)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Coefficients of variation were calculated for peak vertical force and for vertical, cranial, and caudal impulses recorded from the left forelimb and left hind limb of 5 dogs that were trotted across a force plate 5 times by 5 handlers. To determine the percentages of variance attributable to dogs, handlers, and trial repetitions, data recorded for each force measurement were analyzed according to a two-factor anova. Coefficients of variation for peak vertical forces and for vertical impulses varied between 5.8 and 8.5%. Coefficients of variation for the forelimb cranial and caudal impulses and for the hind limb cranial and caudal impulses were 26.4 and 30.5%, and 63.0 and 25.9%, respectively. The percentage of the total variance attributable to dogs and to trial repetitions ranged from 14 to 69% and from 29 to 85%, respectively, depending on the force or impulse evaluated. The percentage of variance attributable to handlers varied between 0 and 7%. The trivial amount of variation attributable to handlers indicated that multiple handlers may be used in experiments without an appreciable influence on the results.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of various cyclooxygenase selectivities on hemostasis and prostaglandin expression in dogs.

Animals—8 client-owned dogs with clinical signs of osteoarthritis.

Procedures—Dogs received aspirin (5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), carprofen (4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), deracoxib (2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), and meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 10 days each, with an interval of at least 14 days between treatments. On days 0 and 10, blood was collected for platelet aggregation assays, thrombelastography, and measurement of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2, platelet thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and free serum TXB2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F (PGF)-1α concentrations.

Results—Platelet aggregation decreased after treatment with aspirin and carprofen, whereas significant changes from baseline were not detected for the other drugs tested. Thrombelastograms obtained after treatment with carprofen revealed decreased maximum amplitude and α-angle, suggesting hypocoagulability. Maximum amplitude and coagulation index increased after treatment with deracoxib. Plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 decreased after treatment with carprofen or deracoxib, and platelet TXB2 production increased after treatment with aspirin. Serum concentrations of the prostacyclin metabolite 6-keto-PGF-1α did not change significantly after treatment with any of the drugs, although the ratio of free TXB2 to 6-keto-PGF-1α decreased slightly after treatment with carprofen and increased slightly after treatment with deracoxib.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At the dosages tested, treatment with meloxicam affected platelet function minimally in dogs with osteoarthritis. Treatment with carprofen decreased clot strength and platelet aggregation. Clot strength was increased after treatment with deracoxib.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare preoperative administration of meloxicam and butorphanol to perioperative administration of butorphanol alone for control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs.

Animals—40 client-owned dogs scheduled for surgical repair of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Procedure—Group-1 dogs received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV) just prior to surgery. Group-2 dogs received butorphanol just prior to surgery (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and at incision closure (0.1 mg/kg, IV). Pain assessment began 1 to 2 hours before surgery and from extubation until 24 hours after surgery by obtaining the following measurements: the visual analog scale (VAS) score, cumulative pain score (CPS), adjusted cumulative pain score, modified cumulative pain score, and the adjusted modified cumulative pain score (AMCPS). Serum cortisol concentration was measured between 12 to 24 and between 1 to 2 hours prior to surgery, and at 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 18, and 24 hours after extubation.

Results—No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in CPS or VAS score. At 8, 9, 10, and 11 hours after extubation, meloxicambutorphanol- treated dogs had a significantly lower AMCPS, compared with butorphanol-alone-treated dogs. Total serum cortisol concentration (area under the curve) during the measurement period was significantly lower in meloxicam-butorphanol-treated dogs, compared with butorphanol-alone treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoperative single dose administration of meloxicam-butorphanol is equivalent to or slightly better than the administration of 2 perioperative doses of butorphanol for the control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1557–1563)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the ability of acetaminophen-codeine (AC; 15.5 to 18.5 mg/kg and 1.6 to 2.0 mg/kg, respectively) or carprofen (4.2 to 4.5 mg/kg) administered PO to attenuate experimentally induced lameness in dogs.

ANIMALS

7 purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES

A blinded crossover study was performed. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive AC or carprofen treatment first and then the alternate treatment a minimum of 21 days later. Synovitis was induced in 1 stifle joint during each treatment by intra-articular injection of sodium urate (SU). Ground reaction forces were assessed, and clinical lameness was scored at baseline (before lameness induction) and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after SU injection. Plasma concentrations of acetaminophen, carprofen, codeine, and morphine were measured at various points. Data were compared between and within treatments by repeated-measures ANOVA.

RESULTS

During AC treatment, dogs had significantly higher lameness scores than during carprofen treatment at 3, 6, and 9 hours after SU injection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse during AC treatment were significantly lower than values during carprofen treatment at 3, 6, and 9 hours. Plasma concentrations of carprofen (R)- and (S)-enantiomers ranged from 2.5 to 19.2 μg/mL and 4.6 to 25.0 μg/mL, respectively, over a 24-hour period. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 4.6 μg/mL and codeine concentrations from 7.0 to 26.8 ng/mL, whereas plasma morphine concentrations ranged from 4.0 to 58.6 ng/mL.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Carprofen as administered was more effective than AC at attenuating SU-induced lameness in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of tramadol for treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs.

DESIGN Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study.

ANIMALS 40 dogs with clinical osteoarthritis of the elbow or stifle joint.

PROCEDURES Dogs orally received 3 times/d (morning, midday, and night) for a 10-day period each of 3 identically appearing treatments (placebo; carprofen at 2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], q 12 h [morning and night], with placebo at midday; or tramadol hydrochloride at 5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], q 8 h) in random order, with treatment sessions separated by a minimum 7-day washout period. Vertical ground reaction forces (vertical impulse [VI] and peak vertical force [PVF]) were measured and Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) scores assigned prior to (baseline) and at the end of each treatment period. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to compare VI and PVF data among and within treatments, and the χ2 test was used to compare proportions of dogs with a CBPI-defined positive response to treatment.

RESULTS 35 dogs completed the study. No significant changes from baseline in VI and PVF were identified for placebo and tramadol treatments; however, these values increased significantly with carprofen treatment. Changes from baseline in VI and PVF values were significantly greater with carprofen versus placebo or tramadol treatment. A significant improvement from baseline in CBPI scores was identified with carprofen treatment but not placebo or tramadol treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 10 days of treatment with tramadol as administered (5 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) provided no clinical benefit for dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow or stifle joint.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association