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- Author or Editor: S. Brent Reimer x
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Objective—To evaluate the use of endoscopy in conjunction with a gastropexy technique in dogs as a potential means to aid prevention of gastric dilatation-volvulus.
Animals—12 healthy adult medium- and large-breed dogs.
Procedures—12 adult research dogs that had no abnormal physical examination findings each underwent an endoscopically assisted gastropexy procedure. On completion of the procedure, the dogs were euthanized and exploratory laparotomies were performed to evaluate the surgical site. Data recorded included anatomic location of the gastropexy, gastropexy length, and duration of procedure as well as any complications.
Results—Mean ± SD gastropexy length was 3.3 ± 0.25 cm, and mean duration of surgery was 18 ± 7 minutes. In each dog, the stomach was located in its normal anatomic position and all gastropexies were sutured to the abdominal wall at the level of the pyloric antrum. The only complications during the procedure were needle bending and breakage at the time of stay suture placement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these findings, it appears that endoscopically assisted gastropexy is a simple, fast, safe, and reliable method of performing a prophylactic gastropexy in dogs when undertaken by a person who is skilled in endoscopy. Such a procedure maximizes the benefits of decreased morbidity and shorter duration of anesthesia associated with minimally invasive surgery. Further clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term efficacy of this procedure in dogs at risk for development of gastric dilatation-volvulus.
Objective—To evaluate and quantify in vitro dimensional changes of ameroid ring constrictors (ARCs) with and without the outer stainless steel ring in place over time.
Sample Population—12 ARCs (5.0-mm diameter).
Procedures—6 ARCs were immersed in canine plasma baths for 34 days without the stainless steel outer ring in place (group N), and 6 ARCs were immersed in canine plasma baths with the stainless steel outer ring in place (group R). The ARCs were digitally imaged at day 0, daily for the first 10 days, then on days 14, 20, 27, and 34. Inner diameter, outer diameter, luminal area, and height were measured for each time point. Volume and weight of rings were obtained at the start and completion of the study.
Results—The inner diameter, outer diameter, and luminal area were significantly different between the 2 groups over the course of 34 days. The inner diameter and luminal area of the R-group constructs did not change significantly, while the inner diameter, outer diameter, luminal area, and height of N-group constructs all significantly increased over the course of the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—R-group constructs had insignificant centripetal swelling without ring closure, whereas N-group constructs had significant generalized centrifugal expansion. Results of this study indicated that the outer stainless steel ring of an ARC may not be necessary for attenuation and closure of some single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.
Objective—To determine short- and long-term complications in clinically normal dogs after endoscopically assisted gastropexy.
Design—Prospective case series.
Procedures—Endoscopically assisted gastropexy was performed on each dog. Dogs were evaluated laparoscopically at 1 or 6 months after surgery to assess integrity of the gastropexy. Long-term outcome was determined via telephone conversations conducted with owners ≥ 1 year after surgery.
Results—Mean ± SD gastropexy length was 4.5 ± 0.9 cm, and mean duration of surgery was 22 ± 5 minutes. One dog had a partially rotated stomach at the time of insufflation, which was corrected by untwisting the stomach with Babcock forceps. Two dogs vomited within 4 weeks after surgery, but the vomiting resolved in both dogs. Four dogs had diarrhea within 4 weeks after surgery, which resolved without medical intervention. In all dogs, the gastropexy site was firmly adhered to the abdominal wall at the level of the pyloric antrum. Long-term follow-up information was available for 23 dogs, none of which had any episodes of gastric dilatation-volvulus a mean of 1.4 years after gastropexy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endoscopically assisted gastropexy can be a simple, fast, safe, and reliable method for performing prophylactic gastropexy in dogs. At 1 and 6 months after gastropexy, adequate placement and adhesion of the gastropexy site to the body wall was confirmed. Such a procedure could maximize the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, such as decreases in morbidity rate and anesthetic time. This technique appeared to be suitable as an alternative to laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy.
Objective—To determine whether a full-body spandex garment would alter rectal temperatures of healthy dogs at rest in cool and warm environments.
Animals—10 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Each dog was evaluated at a low (20° to 25°C [68° to 77°F]) or high (30° to 35°C [86° to 95°F]) ambient temperature while wearing or not wearing a commercially available whole-body spandex garment designed for dogs. Oxygen consumption was measured by placing dogs in a flow-through indirect calorimeter for 90 to 120 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured before dogs were placed in the calorimeter and after they were removed.
Results—Rectal temperature increased significantly more at the higher ambient temperature than at the lower temperature and when dogs were not wearing the garment than when they were wearing it. The specific rate of oxygen consumption was significantly higher at the lower ambient temperature than at the higher temperature.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that wearing a snug spandex body garment does not increase the possibility that dogs will overheat while in moderate ambient temperatures. Instead, wearing such a garment may enable dogs to better maintain body temperature during moderate heat loading. These results suggest that such garments might be used for purposes such as wound or suture protection without causing dogs to overheat. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:71–74)
Objective—To determine long-term outcome of cats treated conservatively or surgically for peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH).
Animals—67 cats with PPDH.
Procedure—Medical records of cats with a diagnosis of PPDH made from 1987 through 2002 were reviewed. Information regarding long-term outcome was obtained from owners.
Results—Prevalences of PPDH in domestic longhair and Himalayan cats were significantly greater and prevalence of PPDH in domestic shorthair cats was significantly lower than prevalence of PPDH in the hospital cat population over the 15-year study period. Historical problems most commonly related to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was the primary diagnosis in 40 cats and an incidental finding in 27 cats. One cat died prior to arrival at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. Thirty-seven of 66 cats were treated surgically, and 29 were treated conservatively. The postoperative mortality rate was 14%. Postoperative complications developed in 29 of 37 cats, the most common of which was hyperthermia. Two of 22 conservatively treated cats had progression of clinical signs necessitating surgical intervention or resulting in death. Owner satisfaction with treatment choice and long-term outcome was rated as very satisfied by 88% of owners of surgically treated cats and 68% of owners of conservatively treated cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with overt clinical signs attributable to PPDH are good candidates for surgical herniorrhaphy. Postoperative complications may develop but are generally minor and self-limiting. Long-term outcome of cats treated conservatively or surgically was rated as very good by most owners. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:728–732)
Objective—To determine the effects that routine histologic processing has on the dimensions of samples of normal skin of dogs and assess whether the inclusion of a muscle or fascial layer in such samples alters those effects.
Sample Population—Skin samples obtained from 6 medium-sized adult dogs with grossly normal skin.
Procedure—From each dog, skin samples (with or without underlying fascia or muscle) were obtained from 3 sites bilaterally (6 samples/dog) and processed routinely for histologic evaluation; their dimensions were measured at intervals during the experiment.
Results—As a result of processing, skin samples decreased in size (combined percentage change in length and width) and increased in thickness, compared with their original dimensions. Samples without fascia or muscle decreased in size by 21.1% to 32.0% and increased in thickness by 45.1% to 75.8%. The site of sample origin influenced processing-associated changes in sample size but did not affect the change in thickness. Decreases in dimensions did not vary with inclusion of fascia but did vary with inclusion of muscle. The change in thickness did not vary with inclusion of a layer of fascia or muscle.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Processing of skin samples obtained from dogs for histologic evaluation can cause changes in sample dimensions; samples may decrease in length and width by as much as 32% and increase in thickness by 75.8%, compared with their original dimensions. The presence of muscle in canine skin samples can restrict the amount of shrinkage in length or width associated with processing. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:500–505)
Objective—To determine clinical outcome of permanent tracheostomy in cats with upper airway obstruction.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on history, signalment, clinical signs, results of preoperative clinicopathologic testing, cause of upper airway obstruction, surgical procedure, postoperative complications, and outcome.
Results—Causes of upper airway obstruction included neoplasia (squamous cell carcinoma [n = 6] or malignant lymphoma ), inflammatory laryngeal disease (5), laryngeal paralysis (4), trauma (3), and a laryngeal mass of unknown cause (1). Fourteen cats had dyspnea in the immediate postoperative period; dyspnea most often resulted from mucous plugs at the stoma or elsewhere in the respiratory tract. Eleven cats died, including 6 cats that died while hospitalized after surgery and 5 cats that died after discharge; 7 cats were eu-thanatized, most often because of progression of neoplasia; and 2 were still alive at the time of the study. The remaining cat was lost to follow-up after discharge from the hospital. Overall, median survival time for the 20 cats for which information was available was 20.5 days (range, 1 day to 5 years). Cats that underwent permanent tracheostomy because of inflammatory laryngeal disease were 6.61 times as likely to die as cats that underwent permanent tracheostomy for any other reason.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that permanent tracheostomy was an uncommon procedure in cats with upper airway obstruction that was associated with high complication and mortality rates.