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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To examine cross-reactivity among Neospora caninum and closely-related apicomplexans.

Design

Sera from animals were examined for antibody production to N caninum and cross-reactivity to Toxoplasma gondii.

Animals

Cattle were experimentally infected with 3 tissue cyst-forming protozoan parasites N caninum, T gondii, and Sarcocystis sp, and calves were monospecifically inoculated with the intestinal coccidia, Eimeria bovis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Similar studies were done in laboratory rabbits inoculated with N caninum, T gondii, Hammondia hammondi, and Sarcocystis sp. Additionally, sera were obtained from ewes, lambs, goats, sows, cats, rats, and mice inoculated with N caninum tachyzoites.

Procedure

The indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and ELISA antibody tests (cattle only) were used to examine reactivity to N caninum; the modified direct agglutination, Sabin-Feldman dye, and IFA tests were used to evaluate reactivity to T gondii.

Results

Serologic cross-reactivity among N caninum, T gondii, and Sarcocystis sp was none or minimal by the IFA test. There was some reactivity to N caninum by the use of ELISA in cattle inoculated with Sarcocystis sp.

Conclusions

The IFA test for N caninum was specific for the diagnosis of neosporosis in animals.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:329-336)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare heat generation and mechanical bone damage for tapered and cylindrical transfixation pins during drilling, tapping, and pin insertion in equine third metacarpal bones.

SAMPLE 16 pairs of cadaveric equine third metacarpal bones.

PROCEDURES For cylindrical pin insertion, a 6.2-mm hole was drilled and tapped with a cylindrical tap, and then a standard 6.3-mm pin was inserted. For tapered pin insertion, a 6.0-mm hole was drilled, reamed with a tapered reamer, and tapped with a tapered tap, and then a 6.3-mm tapered pin was inserted. Paired t tests and 1-way ANOVAs were used to compare heat generation (measured by use of thermocouples and thermography), macrodamage (assessed by use of stereomicroscopy), and microdamage (assessed by examination of basic fuchsin–stained histologic specimens) between cylindrical and tapered pins and between tapered pins inserted to various insertion torques.

RESULTS Tapered pin insertion generated less heat but resulted in more bone damage than did cylindrical pin insertion when pins were inserted to the same insertion torque. Insertion of tapered pins to increasing insertion torques up to 16 N•m resulted in increased heat generation and bone damage.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Tapered pin insertion resulted in lower heat production than did cylindrical pin insertion. However, tapered pin insertion resulted in greater bone damage, which likely was attributable to differences in the tapered and cylindrical taps. A tapered pin may be preferable to a cylindrical pin for insertion in equine cortical bone provided that improvements in tap design can reduce bone damage during insertion.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate microtiter-plate format ELISAs constructed by use of different diagnostic targets derived from the Ehrlichia ewingii p28 outer membrane protein for detection of E ewingii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected dogs.

Sample Population—Serum samples from 87 kenneled dogs, 9 dogs experimentally infected with anti-E ewingii, and 180 potentially naturally exposed dogs from Missouri.

Procedures—The capacities of the synthetic peptide and truncated recombinant protein to function as detection reagents in ELISAs were compared by use of PCR assay, western blot analysis, and a full-length recombinant protein ELISA. Diagnostic targets included an E ewingii synthetic peptide (EESP) and 2 recombinant proteins: a full-length E ewingii outer membrane protein (EEp28) and a truncated E ewingii outer membrane protein (EETp28)

Results—A subset of Ehrlichia canis-positive samples cross-reacted in the EEp28 ELISA; none were reactive in the EESP and EETp28 ELISAs. The EESP- and EETp28-based ELISAs detected E ewingii seroconversion at approximately the same time after infection as the EEp28 ELISAs. In afield population, each of the ELISAs identified the same 35 samples as reactive and 27 samples as nonreactive. Anaplasma and E can is peptides used in a commercially available ELISA platform did not detect anti-E ewingii antibodies in experimentally infected dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The EESP and EETp28 ELISAs were suitable for specifically detecting anti-E ewingii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected dogs. [Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1195-1200)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research