Objective—To describe echocardiographic and clinical findings in cattle with cardiac manifestation of lymphoma.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—7 adult Holstein dairy cows with cardiac lymphoma.
Procedures—Medical and necropsy records of all cows that underwent transthoracic echocardiography from January 2007 through April 2010 because of clinical signs of cardiac diseases or bovine lymphoma were reviewed. The diagnosis of cardiac manifestation of lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy examination or cytologic evaluation of pericardial fluid obtained by pericardiocentesis.
Results—Most commonly, cows had clinical signs of right-sided congestive heart failure secondary to cardiac tamponade with moderate to severe anechoic pericardial effusion (5/7 cows). In 2 cows, tachycardia was the only clinical sign in relation to cardiac disease and a heterogenic mass was observed protruding into the right atrium.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of transthoracic echocardiography aided in the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma in cows. Transthoracic echocardiography may help to quantify the severity of pericardial effusion and to orient needle placement for pericardiocentesis to determine a final diagnosis. A mass within the right atrium was also suggestive of cardiac lymphoma and should be differentiated from mural bacterial endocarditis.
Case Description—4 adult Holstein dairy cows were examined for anorexia and decreased milk production.
Clinical Findings—Clinical signs included abdominal distension, normal to decreased ruminal motility, and decreased fecal output. Hypochloremia and high BUN concentration were also noted on serum biochemical analysis. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed abnormal thickening of the abomasum with pyloric thickening and loss of the typical layered appearance of the pyloric wall. Results of cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates of the abnormal portion of the abomasum were compatible with a diagnosis of lymphoma in 3 cows.
Outcome—The diagnosis of lymphoma involving the abomasum was confirmed by exploratory laparotomy, necropsy, or slaughterhouse reports. Two cows were euthanatized, 1 died 5 days after the diagnosis, and 1 was sent to the slaughterhouse, but the carcass was discarded because of generalized lymphoma.
Clinical Relevance—Transabdominal ultrasonography is a noninvasive portable test that can be useful for the diagnosis of lymphomatous infiltration of the pyloric portion of the abomasum, which may result in obstruction. This can be especially useful to avoid unnecessary treatments when no typical signs of enzootic lymphoma are present. Percutaneous fine-needle aspiration of the abnormally thickened abomasal wall should be performed. These procedures can enable diagnosis of this neoplasm, which has a relatively poor prognosis, thus avoiding the unnecessary costs incurred by exploratory laparotomy.
Objective—To compare characteristics and results of 2-step laparoscopy-guided abomasopexy versus omentopexy via laparotomy in the right paralumbar fossa for the treatment of dairy cows with a left displaced abomasum (LDA).
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Animals—253 dairy cows with an LDA.
Procedures—All cows that were treated with omentopexy (n = 101) or 2-step laparoscopy-guided abomasopexy (152) from July 2005 through December 2006 were included. Presurgical, perisurgical, and postsurgical information was recorded by attending veterinarians. Producers were interviewed by telephone 7 and 60 days after surgery regarding the response of cows to surgery. Characteristics of and responses to the 2 surgical techniques were compared.
Results—At 7 days after surgery, the 2 groups of cows were not significantly different with respect to appetite, comfort, and milk yield; at 60 days after surgery, groups were similar with respect to milk yield, cull rates, and risk of relapse of LDA. Antimicrobial treatment in response to postsurgical pyrexia was necessary in only 20.4% (31/152) of cows that were treated with 2-step laparoscopy-guided abomasopexy. Mean duration (preparation and surgery) of 2-step laparoscopy-guided abomasopexy was significantly less than that of omentopexy (36 vs 74 minutes, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of 2-step laparoscopy-guided abomasopexy and omentopexy via laparotomy in the right paralumbar fossa were not significantly different. Compared with omentopexy, laparoscopy-guided abomasopexy was performed more quickly and required postsurgical administration of antimicrobials less frequently. Although these factors may be of economic consequence to veterinarians and producers, other aspects must also be considered when choosing between techniques.
Objective—To characterize duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus (DSFV) and determine the prognosis for affected cattle undergoing surgery.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—29 dairy cattle.
Procedures—The medical records were analyzed for history, signalment, clinical signs, medical management, surgical findings, and outcome.
Results—29 cattle were determined to have DSFV between December 2006 and August 2010. Twenty cattle had had an omentopexy or pyloropexy performed 1 day to 2 years before initial evaluation. Cattle were afebrile, tachycardic, and moderately dehydrated, with a small zone of percussion with a ping at the 10th to 12th right intercostal spaces and associated succussion. Biochemical changes were a severe hypokalemic (mean ± SD, 2.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L; median, 3.1 mmol/L; range, 2.08 to 3.92 mmol/L), hypochloremic (mean, 69.7 ± 11.1 mmol/L; median, 71.7 mmol/L; range, 49.1 to 94.1 mmol/L) metabolic alkalosis (mean total CO2, 44.5 ± 7.4 mmol/L; median, 45.3 mmol/L; range, 31.5 to 59.6 mmol/L) and hyperbilirubinemia (mean, 32.4 ± 29.0 μmol/L; median, 20.5 μmol/L; range, 7.8 to 107 μmol/L). Surgical findings for DSFV included an empty descending duodenum adjacent to a dorsally displaced and dilated cranial segment of the duodenum, distended abomasum and gallbladder, and a tight volvulus at the base of the duodenal sigmoid flexure. Manual reduction was considered successful if the descending duodenum filled after cranial duodenal massage. Twenty-two patients were successfully treated; the remaining 7 died or were euthanized within 4 days after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A condition clinically resembling abomasal volvulus but affecting the duodenal sigmoid flexure has been recognized in dairy cattle. When a focal, dorsal right-sided ping and succussion are present combined with severe hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and high bilirubin concentration, DSFV should be suspected, especially when there is a history of prior abomasal fixation. After surgical correction, the prognosis is fair to good.