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  • Author or Editor: Ryan P. Cavanaugh x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess causes of splenomegaly and postsurgical outcomes in small-breed (ie, < 16-kg [< 35.2-lb]) dogs that underwent splenectomy and evaluate associations among malignant disease, hemoperitoneum, and survival time in these patients.

DESIGN

Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS

45 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of 2 veterinary facilities were reviewed to identify small-breed dogs that underwent splenectomy and had a histologic diagnosis recorded. Data analyzed included signalment, diagnosis, presence or absence of hemoperitoneum, and survival time.

RESULTS

21 dogs had malignant neoplasia and 24 had benign splenic diseases. Hemangiosarcoma was the most common malignancy (14/21 [67%] dogs) and lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, hematoma, or extramedullary hematopoiesis (alone or in combination) was most commonly diagnosed in dogs with benign disease (17/24 [71%]). Wheaton Terriers were significantly more likely to have malignant splenic disease than were dogs of other breeds. Malignant splenic disease and the presence of hemoperitoneum had significant negative associations with survival time. Malignant disease was not significantly associated with the presence of hemoperitoneum.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Causes for splenomegaly and survival times were similar to those previously reported for populations that primarily included large-breed dogs. There were approximately equal numbers of benign and malignant causes for splenomegaly in this population. Results suggested that Wheaton Terriers with splenomegaly had a higher likelihood of malignant neoplasia than other breeds and that hemoperitoneum may not be a significant predictor of malignancy in small-breed dogs. However, further research including a larger number of dogs is needed to confirm these findings. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250:1148–1154)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Radiology

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate complications and outcomes associated with surgical placement of gastrojejunostomy feeding tubes in dogs with naturally occurring disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—26 dogs.

Procedures—Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were evaluated. Daily postoperative abdominal radiographic examinations were performed to determine the presence of the following mechanical tube complications: kinking, coiling, knotting, and migration. Tube stoma abnormalities (erythema, cellulitis, and discharge) were observed daily and recorded by use of a standardized visual analog grading scale. Additionally, presence of complications was compared with median survival times.

Results—The most common indication for gastrojejunostomy tube placement was gastrointestinal disease (n = 11), with confirmed septic peritonitis in 8 of 11 dogs. Other indications for gastrojejunostomy tube placement included extrahepatic biliary surgery (n = 6) and pancreatic disease (9). Mean ± SD surgical time required for tube placement was 26 ± 14 minutes. Overall, mechanical tube complication rate was 46% (12/26), including coiling (7), migration (4), and kinking (2). Overall minor tube stoma complication rate was 77% (20/26) and included erythema (16), cellulitis (13), and discharge (17). Dislodgement or self-induced tube trauma resulted in accidental tube removal in 2 of 26 dogs, and inadvertent tube damage necessitated premature removal by the clinician in 1 of 26 dogs. Kaplan-Meier median survival time was 39 days with 13 of 26 dogs still alive.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gastrojejunostomy tube placement affords flexibility in the postoperative nutritional regimen by allowing for postgastric feeding with simultaneous access to the stomach.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and outcome for cats with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) that underwent surgical excision.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 30 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES Databases of 13 Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology member–affiliated institutions were searched for records of cats with a histologic diagnosis of AGASACA that underwent tumor excision. For each cat, information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome was extracted from the medical record. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median time to local recurrence (TLR), disease-free interval (DFI), and survival time. Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with TLR, DFI, and survival time.

RESULTS Perineal ulceration or discharge was the most common clinical sign in affected cats. Eleven cats developed local recurrence at a median of 96 days after AGASACA excision. Incomplete tumor margins and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for local recurrence. Nuclear pleomorphic score was negatively associated with DFI. Local recurrence and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for death. Median DFI and survival time were 234 and 260 days, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, in cats, perineal ulceration or discharge should raise suspicion of AGASACA and prompt rectal and anal sac examinations. Local recurrence was the most common life-limiting event in cats that underwent surgery for treatment of AGASACA, suggesting that wide margins should be obtained whenever possible during AGASACA excision. Efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for treatment of cats with AGASACA requires further investigation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:716–722)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association