OBJECTIVE To characterize pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydoxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP) in the plasma of healthy cats after oral, IV, and IP administration of cyclophosphamide.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult cats.
PROCEDURES Cats were randomly assigned to receive cyclophosphamide (200 mg/m2) via each of 3 routes of administration (oral, IV, and IP); there was a 30-day washout period between successive treatments. Plasma samples were obtained at various time points for up to 8 hours after administration. Samples were treated with semicarbazide hydrochloride to trap the 4-OHCP in stable form, which allowed for cyclophosphamide and trapped 4-OHCP to be simultaneously measured by use of tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from drug concentration-versus-time data for both cyclophosphamide and 4-OHCP.
RESULTS Cyclophosphamide was tolerated well regardless of route of administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters for 4-OHCP were similar after oral, IV, and IP administration. Area under the concentration-time curve for cyclophosphamide was lower after oral administration than after IV or IP administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cyclophosphamide can be administered interchangeably to cats as oral, IV, and IP formulations, which should provide benefits with regard to cost and ease of administration to certain feline patients.
Objective—To determine the effects of intratumoral injection of a hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate on local and systemic platinum concentrations and systemic toxicosis.
Animals—5 dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas (STSs).
Procedures—For each dog, approximately 1.5 mL of hyaluronan nanocarrier conjugated with 20 mg of cisplatin was injected into an external STS. Blood samples were collected immediately before (0 hours) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, and 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for pharmacokinetic analyses. Urine samples were obtained at 0 and at 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for urinalysis. Each treated STS and its sentinel lymph nodes were surgically removed 96 hours after the hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure platinum concentrations in blood samples, tumors, and lymph nodes.
Results—No tissue reactions were detected 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Mean ± SD area under the curve, peak concentration, and terminal half-life for unbound (plasma) and total (serum) platinum were 774.6 ± 221.1 ng•h/mL and 3,562.1 ± 2,031.1 ng•h/mL, 56.5 ± 20.9 ng/mL and 81.6 ± 40.4 ng/mL, and 33.6 ± 16.1 hours and 51.2 ± 29.1 hours, respectively. Platinum concentrations ranged from 3,325 to 8,229 ng/g in STSs and 130 to 6,066 ng/g in STS-associated lymph nodes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intratumoral injection of the hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate was well tolerated in treated dogs. Following intratumoral hyaluronan-cisplatin injection, platinum concentration was 1,000-fold and 100-fold greater within treated tumors and tumor-draining lymphatics, respectively, compared with that in plasma.
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of orally administered rapamycin in healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 5 healthy purpose-bred hounds.
PROCEDURES The study consisted of 2 experiments. In experiment 1, each dog received rapamycin (0.1 mg/kg, PO) once; blood samples were obtained immediately before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. In experiment 2, each dog received rapamycin (0.1 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 5 days; blood samples were obtained immediately before and at 3, 6, 24, 27, 30, 48, 51, 54, 72, 75, 78, 96, 96.5, 97, 98, 100, 102, 108, 120, 144, and 168 hours after the first dose. Blood rapamycin concentration was determined by a validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by compartmental and noncompartmental analyses.
RESULTS Mean ± SD blood rapamycin terminal half-life, area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 48 hours after dosing, and maximum concentration were 38.7 ± 12.7 h, 140 ± 23.9 ng•h/mL, and 8.39 ± 1.73 ng/mL, respectively, for experiment 1, and 99.5 ± 89.5 h, 126 ± 27.1 ng•h/mL, and 5.49 ± 1.99 ng/mL, respectively, for experiment 2. Pharmacokinetic parameters for rapamycin after administration of 5 daily doses differed significantly from those after administration of 1 dose.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that oral administration of low-dose (0.1 mg/kg) rapamycin to healthy dogs achieved blood concentrations measured in nanograms per milliliter. The optimal dose and administration frequency of rapamcyin required to achieve therapeutic effects in tumor-bearing dogs, as well as toxicity after chronic dosing, need to be determined.