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Abstract

Objective—To compare variables for screw insertion, pushout strength, and failure modes for a headless tapered compression screw inserted in standard and oversize holes in a simulated lateral condylar fracture model.

Sample Population—6 pairs of third metacarpal bones from horse cadavers.

Procedure—Simulated lateral condylar fractures were created, reduced, and stabilized with a headless tapered compression screw by use of a standard or oversize hole. Torque, work, and time for drilling, tapping, and screw insertion were measured during site preparation and screw implantation. Axial load and displacement were measured during screw pushout. Effects of drill hole size on variables for screw insertion and screw pushout were assessed by use of Wilcoxon tests.

Results—Drill time was 59% greater for oversize holes than for standard holes. Variables for tapping (mean maximum torque, total work, positive work, and time) were 42%, 70%, 73%, and 58% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Variables for screw pushout testing (mean yield load, failure load, failure displacement, and failure energy) were 40%, 40%, 47%, and 71% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Screws could not be completely inserted in 1 standard and 2 oversize holes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enlarging the diameter of the drill hole facilitated tapping but decreased overall holding strength of screws. Therefore, holes with a standard diameter are recommended for implantation of variable pitch screws whenever possible. During implantation, care should be taken to ensure that screw threads follow tapped bone threads.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the repeatability of equine 18F–sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET) findings, and to evaluate the ability of PET to monitor the progression of areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) in the fetlocks of Thoroughbred racehorses.

ANIMALS

25 racehorses with clinical signs related to fetlock injuries.

PROCEDURES

This study is a prospective, longitudinal clinical study. Twenty-five racehorses (54 fetlocks) underwent three 18F-NaF PET scans 6 weeks apart. The first 18F-NaF PET scan was performed at the start of a 12-week period of rest from racing (lay-up). Areas of IRU in the fetlock joints were quantified using maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and were graded by 2 experienced observers. Statistical comparisons were made between scans to detect changes in IRU grade and SUVmax over time.

RESULTS

Standing PET findings were repeatable, with 131/149 (88%) areas of IRU identified on the initial scans seen again at the 6-week follow-up scan. The palmar/plantar condyles were the sites most commonly presenting with IRU, followed by the proximal sesamoid bones. Overall, 65% of fetlocks demonstrated improvement in IRU grade during the 12-week period of rest from racing. Areas of higher IRU grade took longer to resolve than the lower graded areas.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Standing PET findings in the racehorse fetlock were repeatable. The SUV-based grading system may be helpful when determining appropriate lay-up duration for Thoroughbred racehorses. PET may be used to monitor areas of the fetlock involved in catastrophic breakdown injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.

ANIMALS

10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.

PROCEDURES

A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.

RESULTS

SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association