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Abstract

Objective—To examine buffy coat smears for circulating mast cells in clinically normal cats and cats with illnesses unrelated to mast cell tumors and identify whether conditions other than mast cell tumors are associated with mastocytemia in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—40 clinically normal cats and 40 cats with diseases unrelated to mast cell tumors (all cats were client owned).

Procedures—A blood sample for a CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and buffy coat evaluation was obtained from each cat. Ill cats underwent other testing on the basis of their disease process.

Results—No mast cells were detected in any sample. Eosinophilia was evident in 11 (27.5%) and 12 (30%) clinically normal and ill cats, respectively. Basophilia was identified in 4 (10%) and 8 (20%) clinically normal and ill cats, respectively. Eight of the 40 (20%) ill cats had neutrophilia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Circulating mast cells were not identified in clinically normal cats or ill cats without mast cell tumor–related disease. Ill cats did have conditions that caused eosinophilia, basophilia, or neutrophilia. The absence of mast cells in buffy coats obtained from clinically normal and ill cats lends support to the current practice of buffy coat evaluation for tumor staging and follow-up examinations in cats with mast cell tumors. Further studies of buffy coat analysis in cats with different forms of mast cell tumors are indicated to specifically elucidate the test's prognostic value for those patients.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcomes and prognostic factors for those outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with curative-intent surgery and adjuvant carboplatin.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—65 client-owned dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma and no evidence of gross metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent limb amputation or distal ulnectomy and adjuvant carboplatin treatment for appendicular osteosarcoma were reviewed. Adverse effects of chemotherapy and findings regarding preoperative biopsy specimens and postoperative diagnostic imaging were recorded. Signalment, clinical history, and chemotherapy variables were evaluated for associations with outcome. Histologic grade and other variables were evaluated for association with outcome for 38 tumors that were retrospectively graded.

Results—The median disease-free interval was 137 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 112 to 177 days). Median survival time was 277 days (95% CI, 203 to 355 days). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 36%, 22%, and 19%, respectively. None of the chemotherapy variables were associated with outcome. Preoperative proteinuria was the only clinical variable associated with poor outcome. Histologic features of tumors associated with a poor outcome were intravascular invasion, mitotic index > 5 in 3 microscopic hpfs, and grade III classification.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carboplatin administration was well tolerated and resulted in a disease-free interval and median survival time similar to those of other published protocols.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnl) concentrations can be used to identify cardiac involvement in dogs with hemangiosarcoma, exclude cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs with noncardiac hemangiosarcoma, and identify cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs with pericardial effusion.

Design—Cohort study

Animals—57 dogs (18 with confirmed [5 dogs] or suspected [13] cardiac hemangiosarcoma, 14 with confirmed hemangiosarcoma involving sites other than the heart [noncardiac hemangiosarcoma], 10 with pericardial effusion not caused by hemangiosarcoma, and 15 with noncardiac nonhemangiosarcoma neoplasms).

Procedures—Plasma cTnl concentration was measured, and thoracic radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography were performed in each dog. The cTnl concentration was compared among groups.

Results—Median plasma cTnl concentration in dogs with cardiac hemangiosarcoma was significantly higher than the concentration in each of the other groups. A plasma cTnl concentration > 0.25 ng/mL could be used to identify cardiac involvement in dogs with hemangiosarcoma at any site (sensitivity, 78%; specificity, 71 %). A plasma cTnl concentration > 0.25 ng/mL could be used to identify cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs with pericardia effusion (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 100%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The median plasma cTnl concentration was higher in dogs with cardiac hemangiosarcoma, compared with the median concentration in dogs with hemangiosarcoma at other sites, dogs with other neoplasms, and dogs with pericardial effusion not caused by hemangiosarcoma. The plasma cTnl concentration may be used to identify cardiac involvement in dogs with hemangiosarcoma and to identify cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs with pericardial effusion. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:806–811)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical signs, diagnostic findings, treatment, and outcome and determine factors associated with survival time for dogs with thymoma.

Design—Multi-institutional retrospective case series.

Animals—116 dogs with thymoma.

Procedures—Medical records were searched for information regarding signalment, physical examination findings, results of laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging, medical and surgical treatment, and survival data.

Results—Of the 116 dogs with thymoma, 44 (38%) were Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers. Twenty of 116 (17%) dogs had signs of myasthenia gravis (diagnosis was confirmed for 13 dogs). At the time of thymoma diagnosis, 40 (34%) dogs had hypercalcemia, 8 (7%) dogs had a concurrent immune-mediated disease, and 31 (27%) dogs had another tumor; 16 (14%) dogs developed a second nonthymic tumor at a later date. Tumor excision was performed for 84 dogs, after which 14 (17%) had tumor recurrence; prognosis was good for dogs undergoing a second surgery. Median survival time with and without surgical treatment was 635 and 76 days, respectively. Presence of another tumor at the time of thymoma diagnosis, lack of surgical excision, and higher pathological stage were significantly associated with shorter survival time. Hypercalcemia and presence of myasthenia gravis or megaesophagus at the time of thymoma diagnosis, histopathologic subtype of thymoma, or tumor development at a later date was not associated with survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with thymoma, even those with a large tumor burden or a paraneoplastic syndrome, had a good prognosis following surgery. Surgical treatment, tumor stage, and the presence of a second tumor at diagnosis influenced survival time.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the detection of pulmonary nodules by use of 3-view thoracic radiography and CT in dogs with confirmed neoplasia.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—33 dogs of various breeds.

Procedures—3 interpreters independently evaluated 3-view thoracic radiography images. The location and size of pulmonary nodules were recorded. Computed tomographic scans of the thorax were obtained and evaluated by a single interpreter. The location, size, margin, internal architecture, and density of pulmonary nodules were recorded. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for thoracic radiography (with CT as the gold standard).

Results—21 of 33 (64%) dogs had pulmonary nodules or masses detected on CT. Of the dogs that had positive CT findings, 17 of 21 (81 %) had pulmonary nodules or masses detected on radiographs by at least 1 interpreter. Sensitivity of radiography ranged from 71 % to 95%, and specificity ranged from 67% to 92%. Radiography had a positive predictive value of 83% to 94% and a negative predictive value of 65% to 89%. The 4 dogs that were negative for nodules on thoracic radiography but positive on CT were all large-breed to giant-breed dogs with osteosarcoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT was more sensitive than radiography for detection of pulmonary nodules. This was particularly evident in large-breed to giant-breed dogs. Thoracic CT is recommended in large-breed to giant-breed dogs with osteosarcoma if the detection of pulmonary nodules will change treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize demographics and clinical signs and evaluate outcomes of treatments in cats with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—20 cats with TCC.

Procedures—Medical records of 20 cats with a bladder mass identified as a TCC that were examined at 2 veterinary institutions between 1990 and 2004 were evaluated. Signalment, treatments, and outcome were assessed.

Results—Breeds included domestic short hair (n = 14), long hair (2), and medium hair (2) cats, Siamese (1), and Abyssinian (1). All cats had been neutered at an early age (< 1 year old; 13 neutered males and 7 spayed females). The median age at diagnosis of TCC was 15.2 years. The trigone region was affected in 9 cats. Treatments included piroxicam administration, chemotherapy, or surgery as single interventions or in combination; 6 cats were not treated. At the time of diagnosis, 3 cats had pulmonary metastasis and 1 cat had metastasis to local lymph nodes. Median survival time for all 20 cats was 261 days. Nearly all deaths were attributable to progressive disease in the urinary tract. Five cats were lost to follow-up.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, TCC of the urinary bladder appears to be a rare and aggressive disease that is more prevalent in male cats and frequently develops at sites distant from the trigone (unlike TCC in dogs). Nevertheless, initial clinical signs of TCC in cats in this study were similar to those reported for affected dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the biological behavior and prognostic factors associated with hemangiosarcoma in cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—53 cats with hemangiosarcoma.

Procedures—Data were retrieved from a state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, 3 veterinary colleges, and a private practice.

Results—Cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor locations were more common than visceral (abdominal and thoracic) and oral locations. Surgical excision was the primary treatment in 47 cats. Tumor-free surgical margins were more likely in cutaneous than subcutaneous lesions and were associated with longer survival times. Local recurrence was observed in 6 of 12 cats with subcutaneous lesions for which follow-up was available. Metastatic disease was detected in 5 of 13 cats with adequate staging at initial diagnosis. A sixth cat had pulmonary metastases at the time of euthanasia. In 4 of 10 cats with visceral hemangiosarcoma, the diagnosis was made at necropsy or they were euthanized at the time of diagnosis. Adjuvant therapy was uncommonly used. Eighteen of the 21 known deaths or euthanasias were tumor-related. Higher mitotic counts (> 3 in 10 hpfs) were associated with shorter survival times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma was more biologically aggressive than the cutaneous form and was more likely to recur locally and result in euthanasia or death of the cat. Metastatic potential of the cutaneous and subcutaneous forms may be greater than previously reported. Visceral hemangiosarcoma is associated with a grave prognosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify prognostic factors in a large group of dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular hemangiosarcoma (HSA) or both.

Design—Multi-institutional retrospective cohort study.

Animals—71 dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular HSA.

Procedures—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed. The following factors were evaluated for an association with outcome: dog age and sex, clinical signs, anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, tumor stage at diagnosis, achievement of complete excision, intramuscular involvement, presence of gross disease, tumor recurrence, and treatment.

Results—Of the 71 cases identified, 16 (29%) had intramuscular tumor involvement. For all dogs, median time to tumor progression and overall survival time (OST) were 116 and 172 days, respectively; 25% survived to 1 year. Univariate analysis identified presence of clinical signs or metastasis at diagnosis, dog age, tumor size, use of any surgery, and presence of gross disease as predictors of time to tumor progression and OST. There was no significant difference in survival time between dogs with respect to type of HSA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that adequate local tumor control, tumor diameter ≤ 4 cm, presence of metastasis at diagnosis, and presence of gross disease were significantly associated with OST.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous and intramuscular HSA remains a heterogeneous group of tumors that generally carries a poor prognosis. Adequate local control of smaller tumors with no associated clinical signs or metastasis may provide the best chance of long-term survival.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the veterinary version of the bladder tumor antigen (V-BTA) test as a screening test for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the lower urinary tract of dogs.

Animals—229 client-owned dogs.

Procedure—Urine samples from dogs were shipped overnight to a single laboratory to facilitate testing within 48 hours of collection by use of the V-BTA rapid latex agglutination urine dipstick test. Groups of dogs included the following: 1) dogs with TCC of the lower urinary tract, 2) healthy control dogs, 3) unhealthy control dogs with non-TCC urinary tract disease, and 4) unhealthy control dogs without urinary tract disease. Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated by use of standard methods. Logistic models were developed to assess the effect of disease status, test conditions, urine composition, and signalment on the performance of the V-BTA test.

Results—A total of 229 urine samples were analyzed, including 48 from dogs with suspected (n = 3) or confirmed (45) TCC. Test sensitivities were 88, 87, and 85% for all dogs with (suspected and confirmed) TCC, dogs with confirmed TCC at any site, and dogs with confirmed TCC of the urinary bladder, respectively. Test specificities were 84, 41, and 86% for healthy control dogs, unhealthy control dogs with non-TCC urinary tract disease, and unhealthy control dogs without urinary tract disease, respectively. The test performed slightly better on centrifuged urine samples than on uncentrifuged urine samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our results indicate that the V-BTA test is useful in screening for urinary tract TCC in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1017–1020)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research