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Abstract

Case Description—Severe disease and death in cows and calves affected 1 of 3 separate groups (A, B, and C) of cattle on a commercial cow-calf operation.

Clinical Findings—Clinical illness consisting of severe watery and bloody diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, and death affected adult cows and calves in 1 group (group B). Salmonella enterica serotype Newport was recovered from tissues of cows and calves from group B.

Treatment and Outcome—Despite supportive and antimicrobial treatment of cattle in group B, cow mortality rate attributable to salmonellosis in that group was 7.9% (32/407); calf mortality rate was 14.4% (52/361). None of the cows in Groups A or C died, and the calf mortality rate in those groups was low. Salmonella enterica serotype Newport was recovered from pooled fecal samples subsequently collected from each group of cows. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen was identified in an ear notch sample collected from a necropsied calf from group B. Subsequently, ear notch specimens from cattle in all 3 groups were tested for BVDV antigen. A significantly higher proportion of calves persistently infected with BVDV was identified in group B (8/295 [2.7%]), compared with the proportion in groups A and C combined (1/287 [0.3%]).

Clinical Relevance—Outbreaks of disease attributable to Salmonella Newport infection in beef cattle are unusual. Because of the immunosuppressive nature of BVDV, the possibility of animals persistently infected with BVDV within the herd should be considered during investigation of unusual outbreaks of infectious diseases.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the level of interest of university students enrolled in veterinary science courses toward becoming a veterinarian, reasons supporting or discouraging their interest, when those attitudes were formed, and future plans for those pursuing veterinary medicine as a career.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample—585 university students in South Dakota enrolled in 2 veterinary science courses over a 6-year period.

Procedures—Each year, students enrolled in the 2 courses answered survey questions pertaining to their interest in becoming a veterinarian, background, and future plans.

Results—Most students enrolled in these courses desired to become a veterinarian at some time in their lives. Females were more likely than males to indicate veterinary medicine as their current career choice. Most students developed their interest during grades 10 to 12. Females developed an interest in veterinary medicine earlier than did males. Enjoyment of animals, intellectual stimulation, and the opportunity to actively work outdoors were cited frequently as reasons for interest in veterinary medicine. Increased duration of education, high educational costs, and preveterinary coursework difficulty were major reasons for disinterest in becoming a veterinar-ian. Of students pursuing the profession, desired practice type correlated strongly with previous animal experience.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Considering that most students, especially males, developed their interest in veterinary medicine during grades 10 to 12, elementary school may be the best starting point for exposing students to veterinary medicine. To increase interest in large animal practice among students entering veterinary school, livestock experiences should be provided to children with no farm experience during their elementary, middle, and high school years. In our survey population, cost and duration of veterinary education had a significant negative influence on student interest in the profession.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate costs associated with prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in preweaned calves on US beef cow–calf operations.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE 43 beef cow–calf producers whose operations had a history of BRD in preweaned calves.

PROCEDURES Mail and electronic surveys were developed and administered to producers in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota to obtain information regarding costs of BRD prevention and treatment. Descriptive statistics were generated. Mixed linear regression models were used to assess factors associated with the costs of vaccines, medicine, and labor and percentage time spent on prevention and treatment of BRD in cows, replacement heifers, and preweaned calves.

RESULTS 7 mail and 36 electronic surveys were completed. Median annual costs for BRD vaccines were $2.25, $4.00, and $6.25/animal, and median annual labor costs for vaccination were $4.58, $3.00, and $5.00/animal for cows, heifers, and preweaned calves, respectively. Median annual costs for medicine and labor to treat preweaned calves for BRD were $11.00 and $15.00/ affected calf, respectively. Adjusted mean annual BRD vaccine cost for preweaned calves ($7.67/animal) was significantly greater than that for cows ($3.18/animal) and heifers ($4.48/animal).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that labor costs associated with BRD vaccination and treatment were similar to or exceeded the cost of vaccines and medicine, and most of those labor costs were associated with gathering and sorting cattle. Therefore, costs associated with labor as well as medicine and vaccines should be considered during the development of BRD prevention and treatment plans.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Preface

The Compendium of Measures to Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings has been published by the NASPHV and the CDC since 2005. 1–3 This compendium provides standardized recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue operators, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues and exhibits, teachers, camp operators, and others concerned with control of disease and with minimizing health risks associated with animal contact in public settings. The report has undergone several revisions, and this document updates information provided in the 2013 compendium. 3

I. Introduction

Contact with animals in public settings (eg, fairs, educational farms, petting

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.

DESIGN Matched case-control study.

SAMPLE 84 cow-calf operations in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

PROCEDURES Case herds were herds that treated at least 5% of the calf crop for BRD prior to weaning. Control herds were herds that treated < 0.5% of the calf crop for BRD prior to weaning. Each case herd was matched with 2 control herds on the basis of veterinary practice and enrollment year. Herd owners or managers were interviewed by telephone, and characteristics and practices associated with case status were determined by multivariable conditional logistic regression.

RESULTS 30 case herds and 54 control herds were evaluated. Increasing herd size, frequent pasture movement for intensive grass management (intensive grazing), and use of estrus-synchronization programs were significantly associated with herd status. The odds of being a case herd for herds with 150 to 499 cows was 7.9 times and that for herds with ≥ 500 cows was 12 times, compared with the odds of being a case herd for herds with < 150 cows. The odds of being a case herd for herds that used intensive grazing was 3.3 times that for herds that did not use intensive grazing. The odds of being a case herd for herds that used an estrus-synchronization program was 4.5 times that for herds that did not use an estrus-synchronization program.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Management practices can be associated with an increase in the BRD incidence in nursing beef calves. Modification of management practices may decrease BRD incidence in nursing calves for herds in which it is a problem.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association