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- Author or Editor: Rupert Bruckmaier x
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Objective—To investigate effects of intramammary administration of prednisolone on the immune response of mammary glands in cows.
Animals—5 lactating Red Holsteins.
Procedures—Cows received a different intramammary infusion in each mammary gland (10 mg of prednisolone, 100 μg of lipopolysaccharide [LPS], 100 μg of LPS and 10 mg of prednisolone, or saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Milk samples were collected before (time 0) and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 hours after treatment. Somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and concentrations of serum albumin (SA) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in milk and mRNA expression of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-1β in milk somatic cells were analyzed.
Results—Saline solution or prednisolone did not change SCC, LDH activity, and SA and TNF-α concentrations in milk and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 in milk somatic cells. The SCC and TNF-α concentration in milk increased similarly in glands infused with LPS, independent of prednisolone administration. However, the increase of LDH activity and SA concentration in milk after LPS infusion was diminished by prednisolone administration. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-1β in milk somatic cells increased after LPS infusion and was unaffected by prednisolone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intramammary administration of prednisolone did not induce an immune response and did not change mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and L-1β during the response to intramammary administration of LPS. However, prednisolone reduced disruption of the blood-milk barrier. This could influence the severity and cure rate of mastitis.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether hypertension, high sympathetic tone, resting and exercising arrhythmias, and echocardiographic changes consistent with hypertensive cardiomyopathy were associated with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) in ponies.
DESIGN Prospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 19 privately owned ponies with a diagnosis of EMS (history of laminitis, body condition score ≥ 7/9, cresty neck score ≥ 3/5, and abnormal oral sugar test result; cases) and 20 healthy control ponies.
PROCEDURES Heart rate (HR), noninvasively measured arterial blood pressure (BP), markers of autonomic tone (splenic volume and HR variability), 24-hour and exercising ECGs, and echocardiograms were compared between cases and controls.
RESULTS Compared with controls, cases had a higher mean ± SD HR (44.5 ± 7.5 beats/min vs 38.6 ± 6.8 beats/min) and median mean left ventricular wall thickness (2.0 cm vs 1.8 cm). No differences were identified between groups in BP, splenic volume, HR variability, and number of premature complexes in ECGs. Mean wall thickness was correlated with BP (r = 0.54), high-frequency power (r = −0.71), and ratio of low-to high-frequency power (φ = 0.66). Relative wall thickness was correlated with serum insulin concentration (r = 0.71).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Ponies with EMS had myocardial hypertrophy that was correlated with insulin response to an oral sugar test, sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, and BP. The heterogeneity and limited sample size of this preliminary study should be considered when drawing conclusions. Cardiovascular changes associated with this syndrome deserve further attention.
OBJECTIVE To assess the expression of inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in venous whole blood of dogs with impaired renal function attributable to various causes.
ANIMALS 46 dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI), 8 dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and 10 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs with AKI and CKD were prospectively enrolled during 2010 if they met inclusion criteria. Demographic and laboratory characteristics were evaluated for each dog, and expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-10, and transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) and enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] and 5-lipoxygenase [5-LO]) was measured in venous whole blood obtained at initial evaluation.
RESULTS Dogs with impaired renal function had markedly higher expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and TGF-β and the enzyme 5-LO, compared with expression in healthy dogs. Additionally, 17 of 46 AKI dogs (but none of the CKD dogs) had higher IL-8 mRNA expression and 3 of 8 CKD dogs (but only 2/46 AKI dogs) had higher TNF-α expression, compared with results for healthy dogs. No significant difference between renal disease groups was detected for inflammatory markers and laboratory variables, degree of azotemia, or cause of impaired renal function.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and TGF-β and the enzyme 5-LO was clearly increased in dogs with renal disease, which suggested that these markers were part of an inflammatory response in animals with AKI or CKD. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:218–224)