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Summary

Osteochondral fragments from the axial proximoplantar/proximopalmar region of the proximal phalanx were removed from 38 joints in 30 horses. Ninety-three percent of the horses were Standardbreds, and 28 of the 30 had a low-grade lameness. All but 1 of the horses had hind limb involvement.

A total of 43 fragments were removed. Most (71%) of the fragments involved the medial aspect of the joint and had to be dissected from a covering of synovial tissue. Histologically, the circumference of most fragments consisted of a transition zone at the attachment of the joint capsule, a region of nonarticular, non-weight-bearing cartilage, a region where organized, dense connective tissue, presumably remnants of the short sesamoidean ligament were attached, and a region consisting of irregular truncated bony surfaces covered by mature fibrous tissue, which appeared to be the result of healing of a chronic fracture. There were several areas of degenerate hyaline cartilage, but no areas of normal hyaline cartilage or areas containing retained cartilage cores or other evidence of delayed endochondral ossification. Immunohistochemical staining of 4 segments from 1 horse revealed sensory substance P immunoreactive nerves in the fibrous tissue surrounding the bony fragments and within the central cancellous spaces. The histologic appearance suggests that these osteochondral fragments may be a result of fracture, rather than a manifestation of osteochondrosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 7-year-old domestic shorthair cat with a 2-month history of decreased appetite and weight loss was examined because of paraparesis of 1 week's duration that had progressed to paraplegia 3 days earlier.

Clinical Findings—Neurologic examination revealed normo- to hyperreflexia and absence of deep pain sensation in the hind limbs and thoracolumbar spinal hyperesthesia. Neuro-anatomically, the lesion was located within the T3 through L3 spinal cord segments. Biochemical analysis and cytologic examination of CSF revealed no abnormalities. Radiography revealed narrowing of the T11-12 intervertebral disk space and intervertebral foramen suggestive of intervertebral disk disease. Myelography revealed an extradural mass centered at the T12-13 intervertebral disk space with extension over the dorsal surfaces of T11-13 and L1 vertebral bodies.

Treatment and Outcome—A right-sided hemilaminectomy was performed over the T11-12, T12-13, and T13-L1 intervertebral disk spaces, and a space-occupying mass was revealed. Aerobic bacterial culture of samples of the mass yielded growth of a yeast organism after a 10-day incubation period; histologically, Histoplasma capsulatum was identified. Treatment with itraconazole was initiated. Nineteen days after surgery, superficial pain sensation and voluntary motor function were evident in both hind limbs. After approximately 3.5 months, the cat was ambulatory with sling assistance and had regained some ability to urinate voluntarily.

Clinical Relevance—In cats with myelopathies that have no overt evidence of fungal dissemination, differential diagnoses should include CNS histoplasmosis. Although prognosis associated with fungal infections of the CNS is generally guarded, treatment is warranted and may have a positive outcome.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, and arthroscopic findings associated with tenosynovitis of the carpal synovial sheath induced by exostoses that originate from the caudal surface of the physeal scar of the distal radius and determine the results of surgical removal of those exostoses in horses.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—10 horses.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with effusion in the carpal synovial sheath and lameness evaluated from 1999 to 2003 were examined.

Results—All horses had a history of intermittent mild to moderate effusion of the carpal synovial sheath and lameness of 1 forelimb. Results of regional perineural and intrathecal anesthesia of the carpal synovial sheath confirmed that the lameness originated in the carpal synovial sheath. Radiography revealed exostoses originating from the caudal cortex of the distal radius at the level of the closed physis. Arthroscopy was performed for confirmation and removal of exostoses that penetrated the carpal synovial sheath and impinged on the deep digital flexor tendon. All horses returned to previous athletic activity. One horse had a recurrence of clinical signs 12 months after surgery, which resolved with medical treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tenosynovitis of the carpal synovial sheath and lameness were caused by impingement of exostoses of the caudal radius on the lining and contents of the carpal synovial sheath. Although the clinical signs and surgical treatment were similar to that caused by osteochondromas, these exostoses developed at the level of the closed physis of the distal radius and were not radiographically or histologically similar to osteochondromas. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:264–270)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the radiographic appearance of benign bone infarcts and bone infarcts associated with neoplasia in dogs and determine the utility of radiography in differentiating benign and malignancy-associated bone infarcts.

SAMPLE

49 dogs with benign (n = 33) or malignancy-associated (16) infarcts involving the appendicular skeleton.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective cohort study was performed by searching a referral osteopathology database for cases involving dogs with a histologic diagnosis of bone infarction. Case radiographs were anonymized and reviewed by 2 board-certified veterinary radiologists blinded to the histologic classification. Radiographic features commonly used to differentiate aggressive from nonaggressive osseous lesions were recorded, and reviewers classified each case as likely benign infarct, likely malignancy-associated infarct, or undistinguishable.

RESULTS

Only 16 (48%) of the benign infarcts and 6 (38%) of the malignancy-associated infarcts were correctly classified by both reviewers. Medullary lysis pattern and periosteal proliferation pattern were significantly associated with histologic classification. Although all 16 (100%) malignancy-associated lesions had aggressive medullary lysis, 23 of the 33 (70%) benign lesions also did. Eight of the 16 (50%) malignancy-associated infarcts had aggressive periosteal proliferation, compared with 7 of the 33 (21%) benign infarcts.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that radiography was not particularly helpful in distinguishing benign from malignancy-associated bone infarcts in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The source of a previously described radiolucent crescent in the flexor cortex of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone on the palmaro45°proximal-palmarodistal oblique (Pa45°Pr-PaDio) clinical radiographic projection was investigated in 48 forelimb navicular bones from 24 Thoroughbreds by use of high-detail radiography and x-ray computed tomography (ct). Twenty-five of these bones also were evaluated, using microradiography and histologic examinations. Of these 25 bones, 5 had been labeled in vivo with fluorochrome markers. Tetrachrome-stained 100-µm-thick nondecalcified sections of these 5 bones were examined, using epifluorescence microscopy.

A reinforcement line of compacted cancellous bone, parallel and several millimeters deep to the flexor cortex in the region of the flexor central eminence, was visualized by ct in 42 of 48 navicular bones and by microradiography in 23 of 25 navicular bones investigated. Variable degrees of compaction were observed in the cancellous bone between the flexor cortex and the reinforcement line. High-detail skyline radiographic projections and reconstructed ct images indicated a crescent-shaped lucency within the flexor central eminence of the flexor cortex in the bones in which the reinforcement line was identified, but the cancellous bone between the reinforcement line and the flexor cortex had not been compacted. The radiolucent crescent seen in the flexor central eminence of the navicular bone on the Pa45°Pr-PaDiO projection was not caused by the concave defect or synovial fossa of the flexor central eminence overlying the flexor cortex, as was described. The crescent-shaped lucency within the navicular bone flexor central eminence identified on clinical radiographs was associated with remodeling of cancellous bone within the medullary cavity of the navicular bone. It is hypothesized that remodeling of the cancellous bone is secondary to biomechanical stresses and strains placed on the navicular bone, although the clinical relevance of this finding was not determined during the study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the association between spondylosis deformans and clinical signs of intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—210 dogs.

Procedure—Records of 172 dogs with clinical signs of IVDD and 38 dogs with other neurologic disorders were reviewed. Signalment, sites of spondylosis, severity of associated osteophytosis, type of disk herniation, and duration of signs were recorded.

Results—Dogs with IVDD had significantly fewer sites of involvement and lower grades of spondylosis deformans, compared with those in the non-IVDD group. When groups were adjusted for age and weight via multivariate linear regression, there were no differences in severity of osteophytosis or number of affected sites. Dogs with type II disk disease had higher numbers of affected sites and more severe changes, compared with dogs with type I disk herniation. There was no difference between groups in the rate at which IVDD was diagnosed at sites of spondylosis, compared with the rate at which IVDD was diagnosed in unaffected disk spaces. Areas of spondylosis were closer to sites of IVDD that elicited clinical signs than to randomly chosen intervertebral spaces, and distances between sites of spondylosis and sites of IVDD had a bimodal appearance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An association may exist between radiographically apparent spondylosis and type II disk disease; type I disk disease was not associated with spondylosis. Spondylosis in radiographs of dogs with suspected type I disk disease is not clinically important. Spatial associations among sites of spondylosis and sites of IVDD may be coincidental or associated with vertebral column biomechanics.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association