Objective—To determine risk factors associated with
hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) among dairy cattle
in the United States and identify characteristics of
HBS in individual cows.
Design—Cross-sectional, population-based survey.
Sample Population—A stratified random sample of
1,013 dairy operations with ≥ 30 cows located in 21
Procedure—Information on management and animal
health-related topics was collected with a questionnaire.
Results—HBS was estimated to have been observed
on 9.1% of operations during the preceding 5 years and
on 5.1% of operations during the preceding 12 months.
Factors found in multivariable analysis to be associated
with the occurrence of HBS during the preceding 12
months were large herd size, administration of bovine
somatotropin, and routine use of milk urea nitrogen
concentration to determine ration composition. Use of
pasture as part of the lactating cow ration during the
growing season was associated with decreased odds
of HBS in operations with rolling herd average milk production
≤ 20,000 lb, whereas in operations with higher
milk production, use of pasture was not associated with
occurrence of HBS. For individual cows with signs consistent
with HBS, the third lactation was the median of
the parity distribution and the median time between
parturition and the onset of clinical signs was 104 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that management practices implemented to achieve
high milk production may increase the risk of developing
HBS in dairy cattle. Increased consumption of a high-energy
diet seems to be the most plausible common
pathway for all of the risk factors that have been
described. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1700–1706)
Objective—To identify risk factors associated with
dysautonomia in dogs.
Animals—42 dogs with dysautonomia examined
between October 1988 and January 2000 and 132
control dogs examined during the same period for an
Procedure—Information was gathered from medical
records and surveys mailed to owners of case and
Results—42 case and 132 control dogs were included;
completed surveys were returned by owners of
30 case and 103 control dogs. Dogs with dysautonomia
were significantly younger (median, 18 months)
than control dogs (median, 60 months) and more likely
to come from rural areas and to spend ≥ 50% of
their time outdoors. Compared with rural control dogs
that spent at least some time outdoors, affected dogs
were more likely to have access to pasture land, farm
ponds, and cattle, and to have consumed wildlife, at
least occasionally. The largest numbers of dogs with
dysautonomia were identified during February and
April, with relatively few dogs identified during the
summer and early fall.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Although the
cause of dysautonomia is unknown, results suggest
that dogs with dysautonomia were significantly more
likely to live in rural areas and spend ≥ 50% of their
time outdoors than were control dogs examined for
unrelated diseases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:
Objective—To determine whether the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci antigen, plasma cholesterol concentration, diet, sex, species, and age are risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis in pet psittacine birds.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—31 psittacine birds with atherosclerosis (study birds) and 31 psittacine birds without atherosclerosis (control birds).
Procedures—Necropsy reports were reviewed, birds with a histopathologic diagnosis of atherosclerosis were identified, and available medical records were reviewed. Signalment, history, clinicopathologic findings, and other relevant data were recorded and evaluated. Control birds did not have atherosclerosis and were chosen by both convenience sampling and population demographics. Histologic sections of great vessels from all birds (study and control birds) were reviewed and then submitted for immunohistochemical staining for the presence of C psittaci antigen.
Results—Result of immunohistochemical staining for C psittaci antigen in blood vessels was significantly associated with atherosclerosis. After adjusting for age, species origin, and type of illness, the odds of atherosclerosis was 7 times as high for birds with positive immunohistochemical staining for C psittaci antigen, compared with that of birds with negative immunohistochemical staining. Study birds and control birds differed significantly only with respect to plasma cholesterol concentrations. The median plasma cholesterol concentration of study birds (421 mg/dL) was significantly higher than that of control birds (223 mg/dL).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infection with C psittaci and a high plasma cholesterol concentration may be risk factors for developing atherosclerosis in pet psittacine birds.
Objective—To evaluate changes in cysteinyl
leukotriene (LT) concentrations in urine and bronchoalveolar
lavage fluid (BALF) in cats with experimentally
Animals—19 cats with experimentally induced asthma
and 5 control cats.
Procedure—Cats were sensitized to Bermuda grass
or house dust mite allergen, and phenotypic features
of asthma were confirmed with intradermal skin testing,
evaluation of BALF eosinophil percentages, and
pulmonary function testing. A competitive ELISA kit
for LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 was used for quantitative
analysis of LTs. Urinary creatinine concentrations and
BALF total protein (TP) concentrations were measured,
and urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios and BALF LTto-
TP ratios were calculated.
Results—Mean urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios did not
differ significantly between control cats and allergensensitized
cats before or after sensitization and challenge
exposure with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or
allergen, respectively. In BALF, the mean LT-to-TP ratio
of control cats did not differ significantly before or
after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline.
Asthmatic cats had BALF LT-to-TP ratios that were
significantly lower than control cats at all time points,
whereas ratios for asthmatic cats did not differ significantly
among the various time points.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
LTs were readily detectable in urine, no significant
increases in urinary LT concentrations were
detected after challenge in allergen-sensitized
cats. Spot testing of urinary LT concentrations
appears to have no clinical benefit for use in monitoring
the inflammatory asthmatic state in cats.
The possibility that cysteinyl LTs bind effectively to
their target receptors in BALF and, thus, decrease
free LT concentrations deserves further study.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1449–1453)
Objective—To compare the effects of an orally administered
corticosteroid (prednisone), an inhaled corticosteroid
(flunisolide), a leukotriene-receptor antagonist
(zafirlukast), an antiserotonergic drug (cyproheptadine),
and a control substance on the asthmatic phenotype
in cats with experimentally induced asthma.
Animals—6 cats with asthma experimentally
induced by the use of Bermuda grass allergen (BGA).
Procedures—A randomized, crossover design was
used to assess changes in the percentage of
eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); airway
hyperresponsiveness; blood lymphocyte phenotype
determined by use of flow cytometry; and serum
and BALF content of BGA-specific IgE, IgG, and IgA
determined by use of ELISAs.
Results—Mean ± SE eosinophil percentages in BALF
when cats were administered prednisone (5.0 ±
2.3%) and flunisolide (2.5 ± 1.7%) were significantly
lower than for the control treatment (33.7 ± 11.1%).
We did not detect significant differences in airway
hyperresponsiveness or lymphocyte surface markers
among treatments. Content of BGA-specific IgE in
serum was significantly lower when cats were treated
with prednisone (25.5 ± 5.4%), compared with values
for the control treatment (63.6 ± 12.9%); no other
significant differences were observed in content of
BGA-specific immunoglobulins among treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally administered
and inhaled corticosteroids decreased
eosinophilic inflammation in airways of cats with
experimentally induced asthma. Only oral administration
of prednisone decreased the content of BGAspecific
IgE in serum; no other significant local or systemic
immunologic effects were detected among
treatments. Inhaled corticosteroids can be considered
as an alternate method for decreasing airway
inflammation in cats with asthma. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To evaluate the incidence of colic and risk factors for colic in equids hospitalized for ocular disease.
Design—Retrospective observational study.
Animals—337 equids (317 horses, 19 ponies, and 1 donkey) hospitalized for ocular disease.
Procedures—Medical records of equids hospitalized for > 24 hours for treatment of ocular disease between January 1997 and December 2008 were reviewed. Information from only the first hospitalization was used for equids that were hospitalized for ocular disease on more than 1 occasion. Information gathered included the signalment, the type of ocular lesion and the treatment administered, and any colic signs recorded during hospitalization as well as the severity, presumptive diagnosis, and treatment of the colic. Statistical analysis was used to identify any risk factors for colic in equids hospitalized for ocular disease.
Results—72 of 337 (21.4%) equids hospitalized for ocular disease had signs of colic during hospitalization. Most equids (59.7% [43/72]) had mild signs of colic, and most (87.5% [63/72]) were treated medically. Ten of 72 (13.9%) equids with colic had a cecal impaction. Risk factors for colic in equids hospitalized for ocular disease were age (0 to 1 year and ≥ 21 years) and an increased duration of hospitalization (≥ 8 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—There was a high incidence of colic in equids hospitalized with ocular disease in this study. Findings from this study may help identify equids at risk for development of colic and thereby help direct implementation of prophylactic measures.
Objective—To compare immune responses following modified-live virus (MLV) vaccination at weaning after intranasal or SC administration of an MLV vaccine to beef calves at 2 or 70 days of age.
Procedures—Calves were allocated to 1 of 5 groups. The IN2 (n = 37) and IN70 (37) groups received an MLV vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza 3 virus intranasally and a Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida bacterin SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively. The SC2 (n = 36) and SC70 (37) groups received a 7-way MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1, BVDV2, BRSV, parainfluenza 3 virus, M haemolytica, and P multocida SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively; the control group (37) remained unvaccinated until weaning. All calves received the 7-way MLV vaccine SC at median ages of 217 (weaning) and 231 days. Serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) titers against BHV1, BVDV1, and BRSV and intranasal IgA concentrations were determined at median ages of 2, 70, 140, 217, and 262 days. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against BHV1, BRSV, BVDV1, and P multocida was determined for 16 calves/group.
Results—At median ages of 140 and 217 days, BVDV1 SNA titers were significantly higher for the SC70 group than those for the other groups. Intranasal IgA concentrations and CMI increased over time for all groups. Vaccination at weaning increased SNA titers and CMI in all groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SC administration of an MLV vaccine to 70-day-old calves significantly increased BVDV1 antibody titers before weaning.
OBJECTIVE To determine herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.
DESIGN Matched case-control study.
SAMPLE 84 cow-calf operations in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
PROCEDURES Case herds were herds that treated at least 5% of the calf crop for BRD prior to weaning. Control herds were herds that treated < 0.5% of the calf crop for BRD prior to weaning. Each case herd was matched with 2 control herds on the basis of veterinary practice and enrollment year. Herd owners or managers were interviewed by telephone, and characteristics and practices associated with case status were determined by multivariable conditional logistic regression.
RESULTS 30 case herds and 54 control herds were evaluated. Increasing herd size, frequent pasture movement for intensive grass management (intensive grazing), and use of estrus-synchronization programs were significantly associated with herd status. The odds of being a case herd for herds with 150 to 499 cows was 7.9 times and that for herds with ≥ 500 cows was 12 times, compared with the odds of being a case herd for herds with < 150 cows. The odds of being a case herd for herds that used intensive grazing was 3.3 times that for herds that did not use intensive grazing. The odds of being a case herd for herds that used an estrus-synchronization program was 4.5 times that for herds that did not use an estrus-synchronization program.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Management practices can be associated with an increase in the BRD incidence in nursing beef calves. Modification of management practices may decrease BRD incidence in nursing calves for herds in which it is a problem.
Objective—To identify herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.
Design—Population-based cross-sectional survey.
Sample—2,600 US cow-calf producers in 3 Eastern and 3 Plains states.
Procedures—The associations of herd characteristics with BRD detection in calves and cumulative BRD treatment incidence were determined.
Results—459 (177%) surveys were returned and met the inclusion criteria; 48% and 52% of these surveys were completed by producers in Plains and Eastern states, respectively. Mean (95% confidence interval) number of animals in herds in Plains and Eastern states were 102 (77 to 126) and 48 (40 to 56), respectively. Bovine respiratory disease had been detected in ≥ 1 calf in 21% of operations; ≥ 1 calf was treated for BRD and ≥ 1 calf died because of BRD in 89.2% and 46.4% of operations in which calf BRD was detected, respectively. Detection of BRD in calves was significantly associated with large herd size, detection of BRD in cows, and diarrhea in calves. Calving season length was associated with BRD in calves in Plains states but not Eastern states. Cumulative incidence of BRD treatment was negatively associated with large herd size and examination of cows to detect pregnancy and positively associated with calving during the winter, introduction of calves from an outside source, offering supplemental feed to calves, and use of an estrous cycle synchronization program for cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated factors associated with calf BRD risk; modification of these factors could potentially decrease the incidence of BRD in nursing calves.
To characterize transcription of profibrotic mediators in renal tissues of cats with ischemia-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Banked renal tissues from 6 cats with experimentally induced CKD (RI group) and 8 healthy control cats.
For cats of the RI group, both kidneys were harvested 6 months after ischemia was induced for 90 minutes in 1 kidney. For control cats, the right kidney was evaluated. All kidney specimens were histologically examined for fibrosis, inflammation, and tubular atrophy. Renal tissue homogenates underwent reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay evaluation to characterize gene transcription of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), transforming growth factor-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Gene transcription and histologic lesions were compared among ischemic and contralateral kidneys of the RI group and control kidneys.
Ischemic kidneys had greater transcript levels of MMP-7, MMP-9, and transforming growth factor-β1 relative to control kidneys and of MMP-2 relative to contralateral kidneys. Transcription of TIMP-1 was upregulated and that of vascular endothelial growth factor A was downregulated in ischemic and contralateral kidneys relative to control kidneys. Transcription of HIF-1α did not differ among kidney groups. For ischemic kidneys, there were strong positive correlations between transcription of HIF-1α, MMP-2, MMP-7, and TIMP-1 and severity of fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Transcription of genes involved in profibrotic pathways remained altered in both kidneys 6 months after transient renal ischemia. This suggested that a single unilateral renal insult can have lasting effects on both kidneys.