Objective—To determine clinicopathologic and radiographic
features and etiologic agents in cats that died
as a result of infectious pneumonia.
Procedure—Medical records of cats in which infectious
pneumonia was confirmed by histologic examination
of necropsy specimens were reviewed.
Signalment, clinical signs, and results of a CBC, viral
serologic tests, and thoracic radiography were evaluated.
Infectious agents were classified as bacterial,
viral, fungal, protozoal, or parasitic. Histologic features
(severity, duration, anatomic location, and distribution)
Results—Clinical signs referable to the respiratory
tract were not detected in 14 of 39 (36%) cats, and
results of a CBC (4/18 cats) and radiography (3/13)
were unremarkable. Sixteen of 39 (41%) cats lacked
clinical signs of systemic illness. Etiologic agents
identified included bacteria (n = 21), viruses (11), fungi
(6), protozoa (2), and parasites (1). Cats with clinical
signs related to the respiratory tract (19/24 [79%]
cats) were more likely to have severe histologic
changes than cats without signs related to the respiratory
system (6/14). Twenty-nine of 38 (76%) cats
had histologic evidence of systemic disease, whereas
the remaining cats had lesions limited to the respiratory
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infectious
pneumonia is uncommon in cats. Cats with infectious
pneumonia may lack clinical signs and have
unremarkable results for a CBC and thoracic radiography,
yet frequently have systemic infections.
Therefore, clinicians should maintain an index of suspicion
for pneumonia and evaluate the respiratory
tract when infection is detected in other organ systems.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1142–1150)
Objective—To identify herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.
Design—Population-based cross-sectional survey.
Sample—2,600 US cow-calf producers in 3 Eastern and 3 Plains states.
Procedures—The associations of herd characteristics with BRD detection in calves and cumulative BRD treatment incidence were determined.
Results—459 (177%) surveys were returned and met the inclusion criteria; 48% and 52% of these surveys were completed by producers in Plains and Eastern states, respectively. Mean (95% confidence interval) number of animals in herds in Plains and Eastern states were 102 (77 to 126) and 48 (40 to 56), respectively. Bovine respiratory disease had been detected in ≥ 1 calf in 21% of operations; ≥ 1 calf was treated for BRD and ≥ 1 calf died because of BRD in 89.2% and 46.4% of operations in which calf BRD was detected, respectively. Detection of BRD in calves was significantly associated with large herd size, detection of BRD in cows, and diarrhea in calves. Calving season length was associated with BRD in calves in Plains states but not Eastern states. Cumulative incidence of BRD treatment was negatively associated with large herd size and examination of cows to detect pregnancy and positively associated with calving during the winter, introduction of calves from an outside source, offering supplemental feed to calves, and use of an estrous cycle synchronization program for cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated factors associated with calf BRD risk; modification of these factors could potentially decrease the incidence of BRD in nursing calves.
To characterize transcription of profibrotic mediators in renal tissues of cats with ischemia-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Banked renal tissues from 6 cats with experimentally induced CKD (RI group) and 8 healthy control cats.
For cats of the RI group, both kidneys were harvested 6 months after ischemia was induced for 90 minutes in 1 kidney. For control cats, the right kidney was evaluated. All kidney specimens were histologically examined for fibrosis, inflammation, and tubular atrophy. Renal tissue homogenates underwent reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay evaluation to characterize gene transcription of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), transforming growth factor-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Gene transcription and histologic lesions were compared among ischemic and contralateral kidneys of the RI group and control kidneys.
Ischemic kidneys had greater transcript levels of MMP-7, MMP-9, and transforming growth factor-β1 relative to control kidneys and of MMP-2 relative to contralateral kidneys. Transcription of TIMP-1 was upregulated and that of vascular endothelial growth factor A was downregulated in ischemic and contralateral kidneys relative to control kidneys. Transcription of HIF-1α did not differ among kidney groups. For ischemic kidneys, there were strong positive correlations between transcription of HIF-1α, MMP-2, MMP-7, and TIMP-1 and severity of fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Transcription of genes involved in profibrotic pathways remained altered in both kidneys 6 months after transient renal ischemia. This suggested that a single unilateral renal insult can have lasting effects on both kidneys.