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Abstract

Objectives—To determine historical events leading to establishment of bovine tuberculosis in the white-tailed deer population in the northeastern corner of the lower peninsula (NELP) of Michigan and describe factors relevant to the present outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in Michigan.

Sample Population—Cattle and white-tailed deer in Michigan from 1920 to 1990.

Procedures—A search of extant historical documents (eg, scientific journals, books, public reports, and correspondence and internal reports from governmental agencies) was conducted. Factors investigated included the number of cattle and prevalence of tuberculosis, deer population and density levels, and changes in regional environments affecting the population and management of cattle and wild deer.

Results—High deer numbers and severe winter feed shortages resulting from habitat destruction in the NELP in 1930 contributed to the transmission of tuberculosis from cattle to deer. Starvation increased the susceptibility of deer to infection and modified behavior such that exposure to infected cattle was increased. Relocation of deer resulted in spread of infection to other sites, including locations at which spatial clusters of tuberculosis presently exist. Ribotyping of Mycobacterium bovis from a human patient suggests that the strain of M bovispresently infecting white-tailed deer in the region is the same strain that affected cattle farms at that time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feeding deer to maintain numbers above the normal carrying capacity of the NELP led to deer depending on consumption of livestock feed for survival during winter and increased contact with domestic cattle. This practice should be avoided.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A longitudinal study was conducted over 2 years to identify types of antibiotics and sulfonamides used in Michigan dairy herds for disease prevention and treatment, to determine patterns of use of antibiotics and sulfonamides by herd size and animal age group, and to determine the influence of veterinary presence during diagnosis on the types of antimicrobials used for disease treatments.

In order of frequency, the most commonly used preventive antibiotic and sulfonamides were penicillins, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and cephalosporins, making up over 86% of all antimicrobials used for disease prevention. The most commonly used therapeutic antibiotics and sulfonamides were penicillins, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and sulfonamides, making up over 81% of all antimicrobial drugs used for disease treatment. Cows received the greatest number of drugs, followed by calves (cattle from birth to weaning). Young stock (cattle from weaning to first calving) received the lowest number of drugs. All herds had similar patterns of drug use for the 3 age groups, regardless of herd size.

With the exception of polymyxin and chloramphenicol, producers used antibiotics on their own more than with a veterinarian present or on the advice of a veterinarian. Overall, veterinary presence was significantly associated with increased use of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and nitrofurans, and decreased use of penicillins and aminoglycosides. Implications for drug residue prevention strategies are discussed, with emphasis on the role of the practicing veterinarian.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of morphine administered prior to anesthesia on the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in dogs during the subsequent anesthetic episode.

Animals—90 dogs (30 dogs/group).

Procedure—The randomized prospective clinical study included healthy dogs with no history of vomiting. Dogs were scheduled to undergo elective orthopedic surgery. Food was withheld for (mean ± SD) 17.8 ± 4.1 hours prior to induction of anesthesia. The anesthetic protocol included acepromazine maleate, thiopental, and isoflurane. Dogs were randomly selected to receive morphine at various dosages (0, 0.22, or 1.10 mg/kg, IM) concurrent with acepromazine administration prior to induction of anesthesia. A sensor-tipped catheter was used to measure esophageal pH, and GER was defined as a decrease in pH to < 4 or an increase to > 7.5.

Results—40 dogs had acidic reflux, and 1 had biliary reflux. Proportions of dogs with GER were 8 of 30 (27%), 15 of 30 (50%), and 18 of 30 (60%) for morphine dosages of 0, 0.22, and 1.10 mg/kg, respectively. Mean duration of GER was 91.4 ± 56.8 minutes. There was no significant association between GER and age, weight, vomiting after preanesthetic medication, administration of antimicrobials, or start of surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most healthy dogs vomit after a large dose of morphine, but vomiting does not increase the likelihood of GER during the subsequent anesthetic episode. Administration of morphine prior to anesthesia substantially increases the incidence of GER during the subsequent anesthetic episode. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:386–390)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the survivability of Mycobacterium bovis on salt and salt-mineral blocks in typical weather conditions in Michigan over two 12-day periods at the height of summer and winter.

SAMPLE 4 salt (NaCl) and 4 salt-mineral blocks inoculated with pure cultures of a strain of M bovis currently circulating in Michigan livestock and wildlife.

PROCEDURES In the summer and again in the winter, inoculated blocks were placed in secured outdoor facilities where equal numbers of each block type (2/type/season) were exposed to shade or sunlight. Samples were collected from randomly selected areas on the surface of each block beginning within 1 hour after placement (day 0) twice a day for the first 4 days and once a day from days 7 through 11. Bacterial culture of samples was performed to detect viable M bovis.

RESULTS Depending on the exposure conditions, salt blocks yielded viable M bovis for up to 2 days after inoculation and salt-mineral blocks yielded viable M bovis for > 3 days. Survival time was greatest on salt-mineral blocks kept outdoors in the shade during the winter. The odds of recovering viable M bovis from salt-mineral block samples were 4.9 times as great during the winter (vs the summer) and 3.0 times as great with exposure to shade (vs sunlight).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results from this study indicated that salt and salt-mineral blocks should be considered potential sources of bovine tuberculosis when designing risk mitigation programs for cattle herds in areas with wildlife reservoirs of M bovis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify major environmental and farm management factors associated with the occurrence of tuberculosis (TB) on cattle farms in northeastern Michigan.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—17 cattle farms with infected cattle and 51 control farms.

Procedure—Each case farm (laboratory confirmed diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection) was matched with 2 to 4 control farms (negative whole-herd test results within previous 12 months) on the basis of type of farm (dairy or beef) and location. Cattle farm data were collected from in-person interviews and mailed questionnaires. Wildlife TB data were gathered through state wildlife surveillance. Environmental data were gathered from a satellite image-based geographic information system. Multivariable conditional logistic regression for matched analysis was performed.

Results—Major factors associated with increased farm risk of TB were higher TB prevalence among wild deer and cattle farms in the area, herd size, and ponds or creeks in cattle housing areas. Factors associated with reduced farm risk of TB were greater amounts of natural open lands in the surrounding area and reducing deer access to cattle housing areas by housing cattle in barns, barnyards, or feedlots and use of electrified wire or barbed wire for livestock fencing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that certain environmental and management factors may be associated with risk of TB on cattle farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:837–842)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

We attempted to determine the extent to which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are used in the treatment of food animals, and whether withdrawal times for milk and slaughter are recommended to clients. A survey questionnaire was mailed to a stratified random sample of 2,000 veterinarians whose practices were at least half food animals. A cross-sectional study was used to examine the responses to determine whether differences existed on the basis of a respondent's geographic location, number of years since graduation from veterinary college, and percentage of practice devoted to beef and dairy cattle.

The response rate was 71% (1,424/2,000). Of those practitioners responding, 93% (1,325/1,424) reported using NSAID, with approximately 57 (751/1,322), 24 (327/1,322), and 18% (244/1,322) of respondents reporting use more than once a week, once a week, and 1 to 2 times per month, respectively. Dairy practitioners reported more frequent use than did beef practitioners. Use of flunixin meglumine was reported more frequently than the use of aspirin, phenylbutazone, or dipyrone. Approximately 88% (1,146/1,306) of respondents that used NSAID did so in combination with antibiotics. Withdrawal times for milk and meat were made on the basis of guidelines for the antibiotic. When using NSAID alone, recommendations for withdrawal times for milk and meat varied extensively. Overall, practitioners indicated that NSAID were useful and necessary for the treatment of food-producing animals.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cervids on privately owned ranches in northeastern lower Michigan.

Design—Epidemiologic survey.

Animals—Cervids on 96 privately owned ranches.

Procedures—A combination of slaughter and skin tuberculin testing was used to collect data. Infection with M bovis was confirmed by use of standard necropsy and bacteriologic culture techniques.

Results—Cervids with tuberculosis were detected on 1 of the 96 ranches. The apparent prevalence of tuberculosis in cervids from the 96 ranches was 1.1 cases/100 cervids (21 cases/1,867 cervids tested). For the ranch with infected cervids, prevalence of infection with M bovis was 12.1 cases/100 cervids (21 cases/174 cervids tested). No obvious gross lesions were seen in 8 of 21 white-tailed deer and 1 coyote with culture-confirmed M bovis infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The lack of visible lesions in a substantial proportion of infected animals should be taken into consideration in studies involving detection and prevalence of tuberculosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:656–659)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of antibodies against 6 Leptospira serovars and determine risk factors associated with positive Leptospira titers in healthy client-owned dogs in Michigan.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—1,241 healthy dogs at least 4 months of age.

Procedures—Dogs were examined by veterinarians at private practices. Vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs were enrolled in the study, which occurred prior to the availability of a 4-serovar (Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona) Leptospira vaccine. Sera were tested by use of the microscopic agglutination test to determine antibody titers against Leptospira serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information about each dog to identify risk factors associated with seropositive status.

Results—309 of 1,241 (24.9%) dogs had antibody titers against at least 1 of the 6 Leptospira serovars, which suggested exposure to Leptospira spp. Prevalence of antibodies was highest to serovar Grippotyphosa, followed by Bratislava, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. Age, travel outside Michigan, exercise outside fenced yards, and exposure to livestock and wildlife were significant risk factors for positive titers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among healthy dogs from the lower peninsula of Michigan, > 20% have antibodies against leptospiral serovars historically considered uncommon but more recently incriminated as causing clinical canine leptospirosis. Wildlife and livestock may be of increasing importance as reservoirs for canine leptospirosis as urbanization continues to occur. Expanded vaccination strategies may partially mitigate these trends.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association