Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Rose McMurphy x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of a nonrebreathing circuit versus a reduced volume circle anesthetic breathing circuit on body temperature change in cats during inhalation anesthesia for ovariohysterectomy.

Design—Randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—141 female domestic cats hospitalized for routine ovariohysterectomy.

Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to receive inhalation anesthetics from either a nonrebreathing circuit or a reduced volume circle system with oxygen flow rates of 200 and 30 mL/kg/min (90.9 and 13.6 mL/lb/min), respectively. Body temperatures were monitored throughout the anesthetic period via an intrathoracic esophageal probe placed orally into the esophagus to the level of the heart base.

Results—No difference in body temperature was found between the 2 treatment groups at any measurement time. The duration of procedure had a significant effect on body temperature regardless of the type of anesthetic circuit used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duration of the procedure rather than the type of anesthetic circuit used for inhalation anesthesia was more influential on thermal loss in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare 2 techniques for induction of cats by use of isoflurane in an anesthetic chamber.

Design—Prospective, randomized study.

Animals—51 healthy cats.

Procedures—Cats were randomly allocated to 2 induction techniques. Cats were premedicated with acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], SC) and buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg [0.0045 mg/lb], SC) 30 minutes before induction. Cats were then placed into an induction chamber, and anesthetic induction was initiated. One technique involved a conventional flow-through system that used an oxygen flowmeter and an isoflurane vaporizer to flow vapors into the induction chamber. Alternatively, liquid isoflurane was injected into a vaporization tray that was mounted to the interior surface of the chamber lid. Inductions were videotaped for analysis. Five variables (head bobbing, head swinging side to side, paddling, rotating 180° to 360°, and rolling over or flipping) were scored to assess induction quality. Time variables recorded during induction corresponded to the interval until onset of excitatory motion, duration of excitatory motion, interval until recumbency, and interval until complete induction.

Results—Compared with cats anesthetized by use of a conventional vapor chamber technique, cats anesthetized by use of the liquid injection technique had a significantly shorter interval until recumbency and interval until complete induction and lower scores for quality of induction, indicating a smoother induction.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthetic induction in cats by use of a liquid injection technique was more rapid and provided a better quality of induction, compared with results for cats induced by use of a conventional vapor technique.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine the agreement between direct arterial blood pressure measurements obtained from 2 arteries and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with an oscillometric blood pressure monitor (OBPM) during normotension and phenylephrine-induced hypertension in dogs.

Animals—16 male Beagles.

Procedures—In anesthetized dogs, arterial catheters were placed in the lingual and dorsal pedal arteries for measurement of arterial blood pressure. A blood pressure cuff was placed on either the dog's fore- or hind limb and connected to an OBPM. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures (SAP, DAP, and MAP, respectively) were recorded from both arteries and the OBPM every 5 minutes for 30 minutes (baseline), during a 30-minute period in which dogs received a phenylephrine infusion IV to induce hypertension, and for 30 minutes after discontinuation of the infusion. Mean differences in blood pressure values and confidence intervals were calculated to compare the indirect and direct measurement techniques.

Results—In dogs, oscillometry underestimated SAP during normotension, and the difference between oscillometric and direct measurements increased during hypertension. Oscillometry underestimated DAP, but the difference between oscillometric and direct measurements decreased during hypertension. There was close agreement among techniques for MAP determinations. Biases between direct measurements and OPBM blood pressure values measured from dogs' forelimbs or hind limbs were not significantly different.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In normotensive dogs, oscillometric measurements of MAP and SAP agreed more closely with direct arterial pressure measurements than oscillometric estimates of DAP. Oscillometric measurement of MAP was accurate during both normotension and hypertension in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of 2 fractions of inspired oxygen, 50% and > 95%, on ventilation, ventilatory rhythm, and gas exchange in isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

Animals—8 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—In a crossover study design, horses were assigned to undergo each of 2 anesthetic sessions in random order, with 1 week separating the sessions. In each session, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride (1.0 mg/kg, IV) and anesthesia was induced via IV administration of diazepam (0.05 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg) Anesthesia was subsequently maintained with isoflurane in 50% or > 95% oxygen for 90 minutes. Measurements obtained during anesthesia included inspiratory and expiratory peak flow and duration, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, end-tidal CO2 concentration, mixed expired partial pressures of CO2 and O2, Pao 2, Paco 2, blood pH, arterial O2 saturation, heart rate, and arterial blood pressure. Calculated values included the alveolar partial pressure of oxygen, alveolar-to-arterial oxygen tension gradient (Pao 2 − Pco 2), rate of change of Pao 2 − Pao 2, and physiologic dead space ratio. Ventilatory rhythm, based on respiratory rate and duration of apnea, was continuously observed and recorded.

Results—Use of the lower inspired oxygen fraction of 50% resulted in a lower arterial oxygen saturation and Pao 2 than did use of the higher fraction. No significant difference in Paco 2, rate of change of Pao 2 − Pao 2, ventilatory rhythm, or other measured variables was observed between the 2 sessions.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Use of 50% inspired oxygen did not improve the ventilatory rhythm or gas exchange and increased the risk of hypoxemia in spontaneously breathing horses during isoflurane anesthesia. Use of both inspired oxygen fractions requires adequate monitoring and the capacity for mechanical ventilation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare cardiopulmonary responses during anesthesia maintained with halothane and responses during anesthesia maintained by use of a total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA) regimen in horses.

Animals—7 healthy adult horses (1 female, 6 geldings).

Procedure—Each horse was anesthetized twice. Romifidine was administered IV, and anesthesia was induced by IV administration of ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained for 75 minutes by administration of halothane (HA) or IV infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine (TIVA). The order for TIVA or HA was randomized. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured 40, 60, and 75 minutes after the start of HA or TIVA.

Results—Systolic, diastolic, and mean carotid arterial pressures, velocity time integral, and peak acceleration of aortic blood flow were greater, and systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were lower at all time points for TIVA than for HA. Pre-ejection period was shorter and ejection time was longer for TIVA than for HA. Heart rate was greater for HA at 60 minutes. Minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation were greater and inspiratory time was longer for TIVA than for HA at 75 minutes. The PaCO2 was higher at 60 and 75 minutes for HA than for TIVA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses receiving a constant-rate infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine maintained higher arterial blood pressures than when they were administered HA. There was some indication that left ventricular function may be better during TIVA, but influences of preload and afterload on measured variables could account for some of these differences. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1655–1661)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of atracurium on intraocular pressure (IOP), eye position, and arterial blood pressure in eucapnic and hypocapnic dogs anesthetized with isoflurane.

Animals—16 dogs.

Procedure—Ventilation during anesthesia was controlled to maintain PaCO2 at 38 to 44 mm Hg in group-I dogs (n = 8) and 26 to 32 mm Hg in group-II dogs (8). Baseline measurements for IOP, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure (CVP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Responses to peroneal nerve stimulation were monitored by use of a force-displacement transducer. Atracurium (0.2 mg/kg) was administered IV and measurements were repeated at 1, 2, 3, and 5 minutes and at 5-minute intervals thereafter for 60 minutes.

Results—Atracurium did not affect IOP, HR, or CVP. Group II had higher CVP than group I, but IOP was not different. There was no immediate effect of atracurium on arterial blood pressure. Arterial blood pressure increased gradually over time in both groups. Thirty seconds after administration of atracurium, the eye rotated from a ventromedial position to a central position and remained centrally positioned until 100% recovery of a train-of-four twitch response. The time to 100% recovery was 53.1 ± 5.3 minutes for group I and 46.3 ± 9.2 minutes for group II.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Atracurium did not affect IOP or arterial blood pressure in isoflurane- anesthetized dogs. Hyperventilation did not affect IOP or the duration of effect of atracurium. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:179–182)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare recoveries from anesthesia of horses placed on a conventional padded stall floor or on a specially designed air pillow.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—409 horses (> 1 year old) that were anesthetized for surgical procedures during a 37-month period.

Procedures—By random allocation, horses were allowed to recover from anesthesia in either a foammat–padded recovery stall or an identical recovery stall equipped with a rapidly inflating-deflating air pillow. All recoveries were videotaped for subsequent analysis by an independent evaluator. Times to first movement, first attempt to attain sternal recumbency, attainment of sternal recumbency, first attempt to stand, and successful standing were recorded. The numbers of attempts before achieving sternal recumbency and standing were counted, and scores for quality of standing and overall recovery were assigned. Recovery-related variables were compared between groups.

Results—Compared with horses allowed to recover in a conventional manner, horses that recovered from anesthesia on the air pillow had a significantly longer rest period before attempting to attain sternal recumbency and rise to standing. Once the pillow was deflated, horses were able to stand after significantly fewer attempts and the quality of their standing was significantly better. Between the 2 groups of horses, there was no significant difference in overall recovery quality scores. The air pillow and padded floor systems were equally safe.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that use of a rapidly inflating-deflating air pillow promotes a longer period of recumbency and a better quality of standing after anesthesia in horses.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinical efficacy of hydrocodone-acetaminophen and tramadol for treatment of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Standardized anesthetic and surgical protocols were followed. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive either tramadol hydrochloride (5 to 7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; tramadol group) or hydrocodone bitartrate–acetaminophen (0.5 to 0.6 mg of hydrocodone/kg, PO, q 8 h; hydrocodone group) for analgesia after surgery. The modified Glasgow composite measure pain scale was used to assess signs of postoperative pain at predetermined intervals by an investigator who was blinded to treatment group. Scoring commenced with the second dose of the assigned study analgesic. Pain scores and rates of treatment failure (ie, dogs requiring rescue analgesia according to a predetermined protocol) were compared statistically between groups.

RESULTS 12 of 42 (29%; 5/19 in the hydrocodone-acetaminophen group and 7/23 in the tramadol group) dogs required rescue analgesic treatment on the basis of pain scores. Median pain score for the hydrocodone group was significantly lower than that of the tramadol group 2 hours after the second dose of study analgesic. The 2 groups had similar pain scores at all other time points.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, differences in pain scores between dogs that received hydrocodone-acetaminophen or tramadol were minor. The percentage of dogs with treatment failure in both groups was considered unacceptable.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of hydrocodone (delivered in combination with acetaminophen) and tramadol in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive tramadol hydrochloride (5 to 7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; tramadol group) or hydrocodone bitartrate–acetaminophen (0.5 to 0.6 mg of hydrocodone/kg, PO, q 8 h; hydrocodone group) following TPLO with standard anesthetic and surgical protocols. Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis of study drugs and their metabolites over an 8-hour period beginning after the second dose of the study medication.

RESULTS The terminal half-life, maximum serum concentration, and time to maximum serum concentration for tramadol following naïve pooled modeling were 1.56 hours, 155.6 ng/mL, and 3.90 hours, respectively. Serum concentrations of the tramadol metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) were low. For hydrocodone, maximum serum concentration determined by naïve pooled modeling was 7.90 ng/mL, and time to maximum serum concentration was 3.47 hours. The terminal half-life for hydrocodone was 15.85 hours, but was likely influenced by delayed drug absorption in some dogs and may not have been a robust estimate. Serum concentrations of hydromorphone were low.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The pharmacokinetics of tramadol and metabolites were similar to those in previous studies. Serum tramadol concentrations varied widely, and concentrations of the active M1 metabolite were low. Metabolism of hydrocodone to hydromorphone in dogs was poor. Further study is warranted to assess variables that affect metabolism and efficacy of these drugs in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for elective ovariohysterectomy or orchiectomy.

Animals—10 healthy dogs undergoing routine elective surgery.

Procedures—A CGMS was placed and used to obtain calculated glucose measurements before, during, and after anesthesia in each dog. Periodically, CGMS measurements were compared with concurrent measurements of glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood obtained with a portable chemistry analyzer (PCA).

Results—CGMS-calculated glucose measurements were significantly different from PCA blood glucose measurements during most of the anesthetic period. The CGMS values differed from PCA values by > 20% in 54 of 126 (42.9%) paired measurements obtained during the anesthetic period. Hypoglycemia was evident in CGMS measurements 25 of 126 (19.8%) times during anesthesia. By comparison, only 1 incident of hypoglycemia was detected with the PCA during the same period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the CGMS for routine monitoring of interstitial glucose concentration as an indicator of blood glucose concentration during anesthesia cannot be recommended. Additional investigation is necessary to elucidate the cause of discrepancy between CGMS results and PCA data during anesthesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research