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  • Author or Editor: Rose M. Thomas x
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Objective—To determine the disposition of gamithromycin in plasma, pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, and lung tissue homogenate in cattle.

Animals—33 healthy Angus calves approximately 7 to 8 months of age.

Procedures—Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 11 groups consisting of 3 calves each, which differed with respect to sample collection times. In 10 groups, 1 dose of gamithromycin (6 mg/kg) was administered SC in the neck of each calf (0 hours). The remaining 3 calves were not treated. Gamithromycin concentrations in plasma, PELF, lung tissue homogenate, and BAL cells (matrix) were measured at various points by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

Results—Time to maximum gamithromycin concentration was achieved at 1 hour for plasma, 12 hours for lung tissue, and 24 hours for PELF and BAL cells. Maximum gamithromycin concentration was 27.8 μg/g, 17.8 μg/mL, 4.61 μg/mL, and 0.433 μg/mL in lung tissue, BAL cells, PELF, and plasma, respectively. Terminal half-life was longer in BAL cells (125.0 hours) than in lung tissue (93.0 hours), plasma (62.0 hours), and PELF (50.6 hours). The ratio of matrix to plasma concentrations ranged between 4.7 and 127 for PELF, 16 and 650 for lung tissue, and 3.2 and 2,135 for BAL cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gamithromycin was rapidly absorbed after SC administration. Potentially therapeutic concentrations were achieved in PELF, BAL cells, and lung tissue within 30 minutes after administration and persisted for 7 (PELF) to > 15 (BAL cells and lung tissue) days after administration of a single dose.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for elective ovariohysterectomy or orchiectomy.

Animals—10 healthy dogs undergoing routine elective surgery.

Procedures—A CGMS was placed and used to obtain calculated glucose measurements before, during, and after anesthesia in each dog. Periodically, CGMS measurements were compared with concurrent measurements of glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood obtained with a portable chemistry analyzer (PCA).

Results—CGMS-calculated glucose measurements were significantly different from PCA blood glucose measurements during most of the anesthetic period. The CGMS values differed from PCA values by > 20% in 54 of 126 (42.9%) paired measurements obtained during the anesthetic period. Hypoglycemia was evident in CGMS measurements 25 of 126 (19.8%) times during anesthesia. By comparison, only 1 incident of hypoglycemia was detected with the PCA during the same period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the CGMS for routine monitoring of interstitial glucose concentration as an indicator of blood glucose concentration during anesthesia cannot be recommended. Additional investigation is necessary to elucidate the cause of discrepancy between CGMS results and PCA data during anesthesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin administered with piroxicam, the antitumor activity and toxicity of cisplatin combined with piroxicam in dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and the effects of piroxicam on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in dogs with tumors.

Design—Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—25 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with a combination of cisplatin (escalating dose with 6 hours of diuresis with saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). The initial cisplatin dose (50 mg/m2) was increased by 5 mg/m2 until the MTD was reached. Tumor stage and size were determined at 6-week intervals during treatment. The pharmacokinetics of cisplatin were determined in dogs receiving a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam during the clinical trial and dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone.

Results—11 dogs with OMM and 9 dogs with SCC were included in the clinical trial. The MTD of cisplatin when administered in combination with piroxicam was 50 mg/m2. Tumor remission occurred in 5 of 9 dogs with SCC and 2 of 11 dogs with OMM. The most common abnormality observed was renal toxicosis. Clearance of cisplatin in dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone was not significantly different from that in dogs treated with a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cisplatin administered in combination with piroxicam had antitumor activity against OMM and SCC. The level of toxicity was acceptable, although renal function must be monitored carefully. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:388–394)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association