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  • Author or Editor: Rose E. Baker x
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OBJECTIVE To determine and compare mean standing extension and maximum flexion angles of various joints in healthy adult alpacas and llamas, and determine the reliability of goniometric data within and between 2 observers for each joint of interest.

SAMPLE 6 healthy adult llamas and 6 healthy adult alpacas.

PROCEDURES The shoulder joint, elbow joint, carpal, and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of the forelimbs and the hip joint, stifle joint, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the hind limbs were investigated. Each articulation was measured with a universal goniometer by 2 observers, who each obtained 2 measurements when each joint was maintained in standing extension and in maximal passive flexion. Two sample (unpaired) t tests were performed for comparisons of mean standing extension and maximum passive flexion angles between alpacas and llamas. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for each articulation to assess interobserver and intra-observer reliability of measurements.

RESULTS Llamas had larger mean standing extension angles than alpacas for the tarsal and elbow joint, but there were no significant differences between species for all other joints. For all joints, flexion measurements did not differ significantly between the 2 species. For most joints, the reliability of goniometric data between observers was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.6 to 0.95)

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Except for the elbow joint and tarsus in extension, the angle of limb articulations during flexion and extension can be considered similar for alpacas and llamas. These measurements have relevance for veterinary surgeons when assessing joint mobility and conformation and determining appropriate angles for arthrodesis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



The objective of this study was to determine hematologic changes of stored caprine whole blood in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution over a 28-day period.


Ten 250-mL bags of whole blood were collected from 10 female Boer goats from Louisiana State University’s Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine herd.


10 healthy blood donor goats were selected, and 250 mL of whole blood was drawn from each and stored at 2.78 °C. At the time of collection and every 7 days for a total of 28 days, samples were obtained from the blood bags to determine biochemical and hematologic values of collected blood. Only 5 of the 10 donors had baseline blood bag samples obtained for biochemical evaluation on day 0. At the end of 28 days, the remaining blood was submitted for aerobic and anaerobic culture.


Blood values remained within suitable limits for transfusion and below 1% hemolysis for up to 21 days in most samples. Packed cell volume did not change significantly from day 0 to day 28. Lactate significantly increased over the 28 days, though not as dramatically as expected on the basis of other blood storage studies. pH decreased due to anticoagulant acidity but did not drop below 7. Cultures were negative on all blood bags.


Changes over time are similar to that in other species, and caprine blood appears biochemically and hematologically stable for up to 21 days in storage. In vivo trials are needed for safety and efficacy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association