Objective—To measure rabies preexposure vaccination
rate and identify factors potentially associated
with lack of vaccination among veterinarians and atrisk
Study Population—At-risk veterinary medical association
(VMA) members, their staff members, and animal
shelter and wildlife rehabilitation center personnel
located in a California county.
Procedure—A questionnaire was mailed to VMA
members and managers of animal shelters and
wildlife rehabilitation centers. Respondents were
requested to provide data on vaccination history and
potential factors associated with vaccination status
for themselves and their at-risk staff members.
Vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were compared
by use of univariate and logistic regression
analyses to identify factors associated with vaccination
Results—Fifty-eight percent (79/137) of persons who
received questionnaires responded; 74 were eligible
for the study. Respondents provided data for 47.6%
(219/460) of their staff members. The vaccination rate
was greater among respondents (85.1%) than among
their staff members (17.5%). Among staff members,
age and duration of employment were significantly
associated with vaccination status.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A large proportion
of at-risk staff members working in veterinary
clinics, animal shelters, and wildlife rehabilitation centers
in the study area did not receive rabies preexposure
vaccination per the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention's published recommendations of the
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
(ACIP). The cost of the preexposure vaccine series
may be a barrier, particularly for young employees
who are commonly short-term, part-time, or volunteer
workers. Efforts are needed to increase awareness
of the ACIP recommendations and to increase
access to vaccination through agencies such as public
health clinics. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1707–1710)
Objective—To estimate the prevalence of surgical castration among dogs and cats evaluated at private US veterinary hospitals and to determine the influence of sex, age, breed, geographic location, and prepaid wellness plan enrollment on the likelihood of castration.
Design—Retrospective period prevalence study.
Animals—320,172 cats and 1,339,860 dogs examined at 651 hospitals during 2007
Procedures—Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare prevalence among subpopulations for each species.
Results—The overall prevalence of castration was 82% in cats and 64% in dogs. Prevalence increased significantly with age in both species. Among cats, males were slightly more likely to be castrated than females (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.03) and mixed breeds slightly less likely than purebreds (PR = 0.99). Among dogs, males were less likely to be castrated than females (PR = 0.93) and mixed breeds more likely than purebreds (PR = 1.19). Prevalence was lowest in dogs in the Southeastern United States (61%). Dogs and cats on a wellness plan were more likely to be castrated than those not on a plan (PR = 1.33 and 1.18, respectively). Among commonly reported dog breeds, pit bull-type dogs (27%) and Chihuahuas (46%) were least likely to be castrated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many young adult (1- to < 4-year-old) dogs (32%) were uncastrated, signaling a need to promote earlier castration. Outreach efforts should be directed toward owners of pets least likely to be castrated, such as male dogs, dogs of specific breeds (ie, pit bull-type and Chihuahua), and dogs in the Southeastern United States. Additional research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of wellness programs on an owner's decision to have his or her pet castrated.
OBJECTIVE To examine potential associations between periodontal disease (PD) and the risk of development of chronic azotemic kidney disease (CKD) among cats and determine whether the risk of CKD increases with severity of PD.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 169, 242 cats.
PROCEDURES Cats were evaluated ≥ 3 times at any of 829 hospitals from January 1, 2002, through June 30, 2013. Cats with an initial diagnosis of PD of any stage (n = 56,414) were frequency matched with cats that had no history or evidence of PD (112,828) by age and year of study entry. Data on signalment, PD, and other conditions potentially related to CKD were extracted from electronic medical records. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the association of PD with CKD after controlling for covariates.
RESULTS PD was associated with increased risk of CKD; risk was highest for cats with stage 3 or 4 PD. Risk of CKD increased with age. Purebred cats had greater risk of CKD than mixed-breed cats. General anesthesia within the year before study exit and diagnosis of cystitis at any point prior to study exit (including prior to study entry) were each associated with increased CKD risk. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or hepatic lipidosis at any point prior to study exit was associated with decreased CKD risk.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The findings supported the benefit of maintaining good oral health and can be useful to veterinarians for educating owners on the importance of preventing PD in cats.