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- Author or Editor: Ronan A. Mullins x
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A 9-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat (cat 1) and a 10-year-old castrated male Maine Coon cat (cat 2) were presented for recurrent feline lower urinary tract disease after receiving outpatient care from their primary veterinarians.
Physical examination findings for both cats were initially within reference limits. After a short period of hospitalization, both cats developed peritoneal effusion; results of cytologic analysis of a sample of the fluid were consistent with septic peritonitis. During exploratory laparotomy, perforation of the pylorus or proximal portion of the duodenum secondary to ulceration was identified.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Both cats underwent partial duodenectomy, partial gastrectomy (pylorectomy), and gastrojejunostomy (Billroth II procedure). The cats recovered from surgery and returned to a normal quality of life; however, each had mild episodes of anorexia but maintained a stable body weight. Cat 2 required additional surgery for trichobezoar removal 7 weeks later but recovered quickly. At 7 months after trichobezoar removal, cat 2 developed intermittent vomiting, but clinicopathologic, abdominal ultrasonographic, and upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic findings were within reference limits. At 9 (cat 2) and 13 (cat 1) months after the Billroth II procedure, both cats were reported to be in good general health and without gastrointestinal signs.
In both cats, the Billroth II procedure was technically straightforward and associated with a full recovery and good medium- to long-term quality of life. A Billroth II procedure could be considered for treatment of cats with large mural lesions in the pyloroduodenal region.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-week-old 8.5-kg (18.7-lb) sexually intact female Springer Spaniel was evaluated because of chronic rhinitis with bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. The dog had a history since birth of sneezing and oronasal reflux of food and liquid.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Oral examination under anesthesia revealed a short, incompletely formed soft palate with bilateral clefts. A pseudouvula was not a prominent feature of the condition in this dog.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The dog underwent 1-stage reconstruction of the soft palate by means of a split-thickness soft palate hinged flap and bilateral buccal mucosal rotation flaps. Long-term follow-up obtained 3 years after surgery revealed the dog to be in good general health, with resolution of oronasal reflux; however, occasional episodes of mild sneezing and nasal discharge persisted. Oral examination under sedation revealed attenuation of the bilateral clefts; however, a normal soft palate length was not achieved.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compared with previously described techniques, this technique offered the possibility of 1-stage reconstruction of the soft palate in dogs, rather than having 2 staged procedures performed, and a robust tissue combination that was expected to be less prone to trauma. This technique may be particularly suitable for affected dogs where a pseudouvula is not a prominent feature and appears to be applicable to a variety of skull morphologies. Owners should be made aware that the absence of normal palatine muscle within the reconstructed palate may affect function, but even where normal function is not regained, a good quality of life with minimal clinical signs may be achieved.
To identify complications associated with and short- and long-term outcomes of surgical intervention for treatment of esophageal foreign bodies (EFBs) in dogs.
63 client-owned dogs.
Patient records from 9 veterinary hospitals were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent surgery for removal of an EFB or treatment or an associated esophageal perforation between 2007 and 2019. Long-term follow-up data were obtained via a client questionnaire.
54 of the 63 (85.7%) dogs underwent surgery after an unsuccessful minimally invasive procedure or subsequent evidence of esophageal perforation was identified. Esophageal perforation was present at the time of surgery in 42 (66.7%) dogs. Most dogs underwent a left intercostal thoracotomy (37/63 [58.7%]). Intraoperative complications occurred in 18 (28.6%) dogs, and 28 (50%) dogs had a postoperative complication. Postoperative complications were minor in 14 of the 28 (50%) dogs. Dehiscence of the esophagotomy occurred in 3 dogs. Forty-seven (74.6%) dogs survived to discharge. Presence of esophageal perforation preoperatively, undergoing a thoracotomy, and whether a gastrostomy tube was placed were significantly associated with not surviving to discharge. Follow-up information was available for 38 of 47 dogs (80.9%; mean follow-up time, 46.5 months). Infrequent vomiting or regurgitation was reported by 5 of 20 (25%) owners, with 1 dog receiving medication.
Results suggested that surgical management of EFBs can be associated with a high success rate. Surgery should be considered when an EFB cannot be removed safely with minimally invasive methods or esophageal perforation is present.
To compare complications and outcome following unilateral, staged bilateral, and single-stage bilateral ventral bulla osteotomy (VBO) in cats.
282 client-owned cats treated by VBO at 25 veterinary referral and academic hospitals from 2005 through 2016.
Medical records of cats were reviewed to collect information on signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, surgical and postoperative management details, complications (anesthetic, surgical, and postoperative), and outcome. Associations were evaluated among selected variables.
Unilateral, staged bilateral, and single-stage bilateral VBO was performed in 211, 7, and 64 cats, respectively, representing 289 separate procedures. Eighteen (9%), 2 (29%), and 30 (47%) of these cats, respectively, had postoperative respiratory complications. Cats treated with single-stage bilateral VBO were significantly more likely to have severe respiratory complications and surgery-related death than cats treated with other VBO procedures. Overall, 68.2% (n = 197) of the 289 procedures were associated with Horner syndrome (19.4% permanently), 30.1% (87) with head tilt (22.1% permanently), 13.5% (39) with facial nerve paralysis (8.0% permanently), and 6.2% (18) with local disease recurrence. Cats with (vs without) Horner syndrome, head tilt, and facial nerve paralysis before VBO had 2.6, 3.3, and 5.6 times the odds, respectively, of having these conditions permanently.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings suggested that staged bilateral VBO should be recommended over single-stage bilateral VBO for cats with bilateral middle ear disease. Cats with Horner syndrome, head tilt, and facial nerve paralysis before surgery were more likely to have these conditions permanently following surgery than were cats without these conditions.