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  • Author or Editor: Ronald M. Weigel x
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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate, under field conditions, the immunogenicity of 2 pseudorabies virus (PRV) vaccines (each with deletion of the gene for glycoprotein G [gG], and 1 with an additional deletion for glycoprotein E [gE]), particularly in the presence of maternal antibodies, and to investigate the effect of vaccination schedules in overcoming maternal antibody interference with vaccination.

Sample Population

Two cohorts of 105 growing pigs each on a PRV-seronegative commercial swine farm where breeding stock had been vaccinated with a PRV vaccine containing deletions of genes for gG and gE.

Procedure

Within each cohort, pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatment groups. For each vaccine, vaccination was done at 8, 12, or 8 and 12 weeks of age. One group remained unvaccinated. Blood and nasal swab specimens were obtained at 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 weeks of age, and the immune response was measured, by use of an ELISA.

Results

In cohort 1, where prevalence of maternal antibodies at 8 weeks of age was lower, an immune response lasting until 16 weeks of age was induced in most pigs by either vaccine. In cohort 2, where prevalence of maternal antibodies at 8 weeks of age was higher, the gG-gE- vaccine elicited a lower immune response in the presence of maternal antibodies than did the gG- vaccine after single vaccination at 8 weeks of age. This maternal antibody interference with the response to vaccination was evident in serum and nasal mucosal antibodies.

Conclusions

The gE deletion decreases the immunogenicity of PRV vaccine in the presence of maternal antibodies. Although evidence of maternal antibody interference for the gG- vaccine existed, its immunogencity was diminished less in the presence of maternal antibodies than that of the gG-gE- vaccine. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:976–984)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A field trial was conducted on a commercial swine farm quarantined because of infection with pseudorabies virus. The purpose was to investigate, in growing pigs born to hyperimmunized sows, the immunogenicity of a vaccine with a glycoprotein I (gE) deletion. One hundred twenty pigs were assigned at random to 1 of 3 vaccination schedules at ages: 8 and 12 weeks; 8, 12, and 14 weeks; and 8,12, and 16 weeks. Immune response was measured at 8, 12, 14, 16, and 18 weeks, using the serum neutralization test, a screening elisa, and assays of IgG and IgA in serum and nasal secretions. Results of the serum neutralization test and the screening elisa indicated that, for pigs vaccinated only at 8 and 12 weeks, the percentage of pigs with pseudorabies virus serum antibodies decreased substantially by 18 weeks; for pigs given a booster at 14 or 16 weeks, the prevalence of serum antibodies at 18 weeks was higher, with 16-week booster vaccination eliciting the best response. At each age, nasal IgA and IgG values were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.70), as were serum IgA and IgG values; correlations of serum with nasal IgA and IgG values were somewhat lower (approx range, r = 0.40 to 0.70). Nevertheless, an increase in serum IgA or IgG values on vaccination was no guarantee of an increase in nasal IgA or IgG values. For serum and nasal mucosal antibodies, a poor immune response was associated with high quantities of maternally derived antibodies. Vaccination at 16 weeks was necessary to ensure eliciting of an immune response in almost all pigs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Three large farrow-to-finish swine herds in Illinois, quarantined because of injection with pseudorabies virus (prv), were enrolled in an intensified prv eradication program, with the goal being release from quarantine within 3 years. The intervention plan primarily relied on vaccination, using a vaccine with a deletion of the genes coding for glycoprotein I, in breeding and growing/finishing pigs and decreases of movement and mixing of growing/finishing pigs. The initial goal was to decrease viral spread in the growing/finishing pigs, thereby enabling production of seronegative replacement gilts. Off-site rearing of replacement gilts was implemented in 1 recently infected herd in which the seroprevalence in the growing/finishing group was high. Results of bimonthly serologic monitoring indicated that there was minimal spread of prv in the growing/finishing pigs after 1 year. Increases in the number of sows culled combined with an increase in the number of seronegative replacement gilts entering the breeding group resulted in a reduction of sow seroprevalence, so that phased test and removal of seropositive breeding stock could commence in all 3 herds at about 18 months after initiation of the program. Persistent use of the test-and-removal procedure and repeated testing for release from quarantine were required for the most recently infected herd. All herds were released from quarantine within 3 years, indicating that a prv eradication program based on vaccination and management changes designed to minimize the spread of prv can be used in conjunction with test-and-removal procedures to effectively eliminate prv from large farrow-to-finish swine herds.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Six large farrow-to-finish swine herds quarantined for pseudorabies in Illinois participated in the USDA-initiated Large Herd Cleanup Study. These herds were monitored for antibodies to pseudorabies virus (prv) for 1 year after the initiation of an intensive eradication program. Herd size ranged between 425 and 1,500 females of breeding age. Gene-deleted modified-live virus vaccines were used on all farms, with 3 of the 6 herds receiving a vaccine with a deletion of the gene for glycoprotein-I and the other 3 herds receiving a vaccine with a deletion of the gene for glycoprotein-X. The breeding herd and growing pigs were vaccinated on each farm. Each herd produced its own replacement gilts. In addition, management changes emphasizing all-in, all-out pig flow were initiated.

One year after initiation of the vaccination program, sera for the measurement of prv antibodies were obtained from sows and heavy finishing pigs (> 70 kg) from each of the farms. Prevalence of prv antibodies attributable to wild-type virus infection ranged from 7 to 63% (median, 33%) for sows and from 0 to 42% (median, 4%) for finishers, as determined by the appropriate vaccine differential test. For each sow herd, there was a large decrease in the prv seroprevalence rate after 1 year of the program (range, −21 to −68%; median, −42%). Examination of prv prevalence rates by parity indicated decreased seroprevalences in the lower parities (< 2) in 3 of the herds, suggesting that vaccination reduced the spread of prv. For finishing pigs, 5 of the 6 herds had decreased seroprevalence rates after 1 year (range, −89 to 2%; median, −33%), with only 1 herd having a prv seroprevalence rate > 10%.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare serologic testing with slaughter evaluation in assessing effects of subclinical infection on average daily weight gain (ADG) in pigs.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—18 cohorts (30 to 35 pigs/cohort) of pigs on 7 farms.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected, and pigs were weighed at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of age. Sera were tested for antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), pseudorabies virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. At slaughter, skin, nasal turbinates, lungs, and liver were examined. Associations between ADG and results of serologic testing and slaughter evaluation were examined by use of multiple linear regression.

Results—Pathogens that had a significant effect on any given farm during any given year and the magnitude of that effect varied. However, at 16 and 24 weeks of age, a higher antibody titer was consistently associated with a lower ADG. Mean differences in ADG between seropositive and seronegative pigs were 18 g/d (0.04 lb/d) for SIV, 40 g/d (0.09 lb/d) for PRRSV, 38 g/d (0.08 lb/d) for M hyopneumoniae, and 116 g/d (0.26 lb/d) for TGEV. Of the evaluations performed at slaughter, only detection of lung lesions was consistently associated with a decrease in ADG.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that subclinical infection with any of a variety of pathogens commonly found in swine herds was associated with a decrease in ADG. Serologic testing was more effective than slaughter evaluation in assessing the impact of subclinical infection on ADG in these pigs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:888–895)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine whether alkaline phosphatase activity in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma can be used as a prognostic indicator.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

75 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.

Procedure—

Serum total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activities were determined from archival serum samples obtained at various times during treatment of appendicular osteosarcoma and follow-up evaluations. Associations among activities of TALP and BALP and survival and disease-free intervals, percentage of bone length involved with tumor, histologic subtype, and method of surgical treatment were evaluated.

Results—

High activities of TALP and BALP before surgery were significantly associated with shorter survival and disease-free intervals in dogs undergoing surgery (amputation or limb-sparing procedure) and adjuvant chemotherapy. Activity of BALP significantly decreased in 29 dogs for which postoperative samples were available. Failure of BALP activity to decrease after surgery was correlated with shorter survival and disease-free intervals.

Clinical Implications—

Activities of TALP and BALP in serum are important prognostic factors for appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs. Prognostic factors may help clinicians initiate more aggressive treatment for dogs that are at higher risk of death or relapse. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:1002-1006)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether stress associated with transportation or feed withdrawal increased fecal shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium among pigs experimentally infected with the organism.

Animals

86 healthy pigs.

Procedure

Pigs were challenge exposed with Salmonella Typhimurium at 4 weeks old and reared conventionally. When pigs reached market weight, they were assigned to groups and subjected to various combinations of transportation and feed withdrawal. Ileocecal contents were collected after slaughter and tested for Salmonella Typhimurium.

Results

Salmonella Typhimurium was not detected in feces collected from pigs just prior to slaughter. When feed was withheld for 24 hours prior to slaughter, the proportion of transported pigs with Salmonella Typhimurium in ileocecal contents at the time of slaughter was not significantly different from the proportion of nontransported pigs. However, when feed was not withheld prior to slaughter, the proportion of transported pigs with Salmonella Typhimurium in ileocecal contents at the time of slaughter was significantly higher than the proportion of nontransported pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

When carrier pigs remained on feed, transportation stress increased the proportion positive for Salmonella sp. On the basis of results reported here, it is suggested that producers withhold feed from pigs for 24 hours prior to transportation to a slaughter plant. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1155–1158)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Sera were collected from 6 large farrow-to-finish swine herds infected with pseudorabies virus (prv) in Illinois. All herds were participating in the Large Herd Cleanup Study, a USDA-initiated project to evaluate the feasibility of eradicating pseudorabies from large farms (> 400 sows) by use of a combination of vaccination and management changes. Herd size ranged between 425 and 1,500 breeding females. Between April and July 1990, sera for measurement of prv antibodies were obtained from 113 to 156 sows and 112 to 162 finishing pigs (body weight > 70 kg)/herd. Duplicate sera from 30 sows and 30 market-weight pigs/herd were obtained for measurement of serum antibodies to the following associated organisms: swine influenza virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Eperythrozoon suis, and 6 serovars of Leptospira interrogans.

Prevalence of prv antibodies attributable to field virus infection ranged between 53.8 and 100% for sows and between 0.7 and 97.3% for finishing pigs, as determined by the appropriate differential test for the vaccine being used on each farm. In only 1 herd, prv seroprevalence was increased with higher sow parity. For associated infections, the risk of seropositivity attributable to prv was not significant (for most infections) on all farms and varied among farms. Thus, pseudorabies did not appear, in general, to increase susceptibility to infection with other disease agents.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association