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  • Author or Editor: Ronald E. Mandsager x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare characteristics of recovery from isoflurane anesthesia in healthy nonpremedicated dogs after anesthetic induction by IV administration of tiletamine-zolazepam with those observed after induction by IV administration of alfaxalone, ketamine-diazepam, or propofol.

DESIGN Prospective, randomized crossover study.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult hounds.

PROCEDURES Each dog underwent the 4 treatments in random order with a ≥ 7-day washout period between anesthetic episodes. Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of the assigned induction drug or combination (each to effect in 25% increments of calculated dose) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 60 minutes. Cardiorespiratory variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (ETISO) were measured just before isoflurane administration was discontinued. Dogs were observed and video recorded during recovery. Recovery characteristics were retrospectively scored from recordings by 3 raters. Interrater and intrarater reliability of scoring was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient calculation. Linear and mixed ANOVAs were used to compare extubation times, recovery scores, and body temperature among treatments.

RESULTS Most cardiorespiratory variables, body temperature, ETISO, and time to extubation did not differ between tiletamine-zolazepam and other induction treatments. Recovery scores were lower (indicating better recovery characteristics) with propofol or alfaxalone than with tiletamine-zolazepam but did not differ between tiletamine-zolazepam and ketamine-diazepam treatments. Anesthetic episode number and ETISO had no effect on extubation time or recovery score. Intrarater and interrater correlations for recovery scores were excellent.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Recovery of healthy dogs from anesthesia with isoflurane after induction with tiletamine-zolazepam was uncomplicated and had characteristics comparable to those observed following induction with ketamine-diazepam. However, recovery characteristics were improved when anesthesia was induced with propofol or alfaxalone.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the cardiorespiratory effects of preemptive atropine administration in dogs sedated with medetomidine.

Design—Randomized crossover trial.

Animals—12 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Dogs underwent 6 treatments. Each treatment consisted of administration of atropine (0.04 mg/kg [0.018 mg/lb] of body weight, IM) or saline solution (0.9% NaCl, 1 ml, IM) and administration of medetomidine (10, 20, or 40 µg/kg [4.5, 9.1, or 18.2µg/lb], IM) 10 minutes later. Treatments were administered in random order, with a minimum of 1 week between treatments. Cardiorespiratory effects before and after atropine and medetomidine administration were assessed. Duration of lateral recumbency and quality of sedation and recovery were assessed.

Results—Bradycardia (heart rate < 60 beats/min) was seen in all dogs when saline solution was administered followed by medetomidine, and the dose of medetomidine was not associated with severity or frequency of bradycardia or second-degree heart block. However, a medetomidine dose-dependent increase in mean and diastolic blood pressures was observed, regardless of whether dogs received saline solution or atropine. Preemptive atropine administration effectively prevented bradycardia and seconddegree heart block but induced pulsus alternans and hypertension. The protective effects of atropine against bradycardia lasted 50 minutes. Blood gas values were within reference limits during all treatments and were not significantly different from baseline values. Higher doses of medetomidine resulted in a longer duration of lateral recumbency.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preemptive administration of atropine in dogs sedated with medetomidine effectively prevents bradycardia for 50 minutes but induces hypertension and pulsus alternans. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:52–58)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of medetomidine alone and in combination with butorphanol or ketamine in dogs.

Design—Randomized, crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were given medetomidine alone (30 µg/kg [13.6 µg/lb] of body weight, IM), a combination of medetomidine (30 µg/kg, IM) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IM), or a combination of medetomidine (30 µg/kg, IM) and ketamine (3 mg/kg [1.36 mg/lb], IM). Treatments were administered in random order with a minimum of 1 week between treatments. Glycopyrrolate was given at the same time. Atipamezole (150 µg/kg [68 µg/lb], IM) was given 40 minutes after administration of medetomidine.

Results—All but 1 dog (given medetomidine alone) assumed lateral recumbency within 6 minutes after drug administration. Endotracheal intubation was significantly more difficult when dogs were given medetomidine alone than when given medetomidine and butorphanol. At all evaluation times, percentages of dogs with positive responses to tail clamping or to needle pricks in the cervical region, shoulder region, abdominal region, or hindquarters were not significantly different among drug treatments. The PaCO2 was significantly higher and the arterial pH and PaO2 were significantly lower when dogs were given medetomidine and butorphanol or medetomidine and ketamine than when they were given medetomidine alone. Recovery quality following atipamezole administration was unsatisfactory in 1 dog when given medetomidine and ketamine.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a combination of medetomidine with butorphanol or ketamine resulted in more reliable and uniform sedation in dogs than did medetomidine alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1578–1583)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of dantrolene premedication on various cardiovascular and biochemical variables and recovery in isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

ANIMALS 6 healthy horses.

PROCEDURES Each horse was anesthetized twice with a 21- to 28-day washout period between anesthetic sessions. Food was not withheld from horses before either session. During each session, dantrolene (6 mg/kg in 2 L of water) or water (2 L) was administered via a nasogastric tube 1 hour before anesthesia was induced. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane for 90 minutes, during which blood gas analyses and lithium-dilution cardiac output (CO) measurements were obtained every 10 minutes. Serum creatine kinase activity was measured before and at 4, 8, and 12 hours after anesthesia.

RESULTS When horses were premedicated with dantrolene, CO at 25, 35, and 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia was significantly lower than that when horses were premedicated with water after which time difficulty in obtaining valid measurements suggested a continued decrease in CO; plasma potassium concentration progressively increased during anesthesia, whereas serum creatine kinase activity remained fairly stable and within reference limits through 12 hours after anesthesia; and 2 of 6 horses developed cardiac arrhythmias that required medical intervention. The quality of anesthetic recovery was slightly better when horses were premedicated with dantrolene versus water, although the time required for recovery did not differ significantly between treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that dantrolene premedication prevented muscle damage without affecting anesthetic recovery but impaired CO and precipitated hyperkalemia and cardiac arrhythmias in healthy isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare effects of tiletamine-zolazepam, alfaxalone, ketamine-diazepam, and propofol for anesthetic induction on cardiorespiratory and acid-base variables before and during isoflurane-maintained anesthesia in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS 6 dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane and instrumented. After dogs recovered from anesthesia, baseline values for cardiorespiratory variables and cardiac output were determined, and arterial and mixed-venous blood samples were obtained. Tiletamine-zolazepam (5 mg/kg), alfaxalone (4 mg/kg), propofol (6 mg/kg), or ketamine-diazepam (7 and 0.3 mg/kg) was administered IV in 25% increments to enable intubation. After induction (M0) and at 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes of a light anesthetic plane maintained with isoflurane, measurements and sample collections were repeated. Cardiorespiratory and acid-base variables were compared with a repeated-measures ANOVA and post hoc t test and between time points with a pairwise Tukey test.

RESULTS Mean ± SD intubation doses were 3.8 ± 0.8 mg/kg for tiletamine-zolazepam, 2.8 ± 0.3 mg/kg for alfaxalone, 6.1 ± 0.9 mg/kg and 0.26 ± 0.04 mg/kg for ketamine-diazepam, and 5.4 ± 1.1 mg/kg for propofol. Anesthetic depth was similar among regimens. At M0, heart rate increased by 94.9%, 74.7%, and 54.3% for tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine-diazepam, and alfaxalone, respectively. Tiletamine-zolazepam caused higher oxygen delivery than propofol. Postinduction apnea occurred in 3 dogs when receiving alfaxalone. Acid-base variables remained within reference limits.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In healthy dogs in which a light plane of anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane, cardiovascular and metabolic effects after induction with tiletamine-zolazepam were comparable to those after induction with alfaxalone and ketamine-diazepam.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of medetomidine on anesthetic dose requirements, cardiorespiratory variables, plasma cortisol concentrations, and behavioral pain scores in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Design—Randomized, prospective study.

Animals—12 healthy Walker-type hound dogs.

Procedure—Dogs received medetomidine (40 µg/kg [18.2 µg/lb] of body weight, IM; n = 6) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 ml, IM; 6) prior to anesthesia induction with thiopental; thiopental dose needed for endotracheal intubation was compared between groups. Ovariohysterectomy was performed during halothane anesthesia. Blood samples were obtained at various times before drug administration until 300 minutes after extubation. Various physiologic measurements and end-tidal halothane concentrations were recorded.

Results—In medetomidine-treated dogs, heart rate was significantly lower than in controls, and blood pressure did not change significantly from baseline. Plasma cortisol concentrations did not increase significantly until 60 minutes after extubation in medetomidine-treated dogs, whereas values in control dogs were increased from time of surgery until the end of the recording period. Control dogs had higher pain scores than treated dogs from extubation until the end of the recording period.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Administration of medetomidine reduced dose requirements for thiopental and halothane and provided postoperative analgesia up to 90 minutes after extubation. Dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy by use of thiopental induction and halothane anesthesia benefit from analgesia induced by medetomidine administered prior to anesthesia induction. Additional analgesia is appropriate 60 minutes after extubation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:509–514)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate renal effects of carprofen in healthy dogs following general anesthesia.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—10 English hound dogs (6 females and 4 males).

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or carprofen (5) groups. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (6 to 8 mg/kg [2.7 to 3.6 mg/lb] of body weight, IV) and maintained with isoflurane (end-tidal concentration, 2.0%). Each dog underwent two 60-minute anesthetic episodes with 1 week between episodes, and mean arterial blood pressure was maintained between 60 and 90 mm Hg during each episode. Dogs in the carprofen group received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], PO) at 9:00 AM and 6:00 PM the day before and at 7:00 AM the day of the second anesthetic episode. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were determined during each anesthetic episode by use of renal scintigraphy. Serum creatinine and BUN concentrations and the urine γ-glutamyltransferase-to-creatinine concentration (urine GGT: creatinine) ratio were determined daily for 2 days before and 5 days after general anesthesia.

Results—Significant differences were not detected in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations, urine GGT:creatinine ratio, and GFR either between or within treatment groups over time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen did not significantly alter renal function in healthy dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane. These results suggest that carprofen may be safe to use for preemptive perioperative analgesia, provided that normal cardiorespiratory function is maintained. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:346–349)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of butorphanol and carprofen, alone and in combination, on the minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in dogs.

Design—Randomized complete-block crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Minimal alveolar concentration of isoflurane was determined following administration of carprofen alone, butorphanol alone, carprofen and butorphanol, and neither drug (control). Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane in oxygen, and MAC was determined by use of a tail clamp method. Three hours prior to induction of anesthesia, dogs were fed a small amount of canned food without any drugs (control) or with carprofen (2.2 mg/kg of body weight [1 mg/lb]). Following initial determination of MAC, butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], IV) was administered, and MAC was determined again. Heart rate, respiratory rate, indirect arterial blood pressure, endtidal partial pressure of CO2, and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen were recorded at the time MAC was determined.

Results—Mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane following administration of butorphanol alone (1.03 ± 0.22%) or carprofen and butorphanol (0.90 ± 0.21%) were significantly less than the control MAC (1.28 ± 0.14%), but MAC after administration of carprofen alone (1.20 ± 0.13%) was not significantly different from the control value. The effects of carprofen and butorphanol on the MAC of isoflurane were additive. There were not any significant differences among treatments in regard to cardiorespiratory data.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that administration of butorphanol alone or in combination with carprofen significantly reduces the MAC of isoflurane in dogs; however, the effects of butorphanol and carprofen are additive, not synergistic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1025–1028)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association