Objective—To measure intraocular pressure (IOP)
and progesterone concentrations in cats and to examine
their reproductive organs to determine whether
reproductive status affects IOP in cats.
Animals—75 sexually intact domestic shorthair cats
scheduled to be neutered, including 28 males, 21
females not in estrus, 13 females in estrus, and 13
Procedures—Applanation tonometry was conducted
to measure IOP, and radioimmunoassay was used to
determine progesterone concentrations. Reproductive
organs were examined at time of surgery.
Results—The IOP in female cats that were in estrus
was significantly higher than IOP in female cats that
were not in estrus. Progesterone concentrations significantly
affected IOP in pregnant cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, IOP is
affected by changes in reproductive status. Such
changes should be considered when interpreting
tonometry results in this species. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:159–162)
Objective—To determine baseline tear pH in dogs, horses, and cattle by use of a microelectrode.
Animals—28 dogs, 24 horses, and 29 cattle.
Procedures—Under manual restraint, tears were collected from each subject's left eye with cotton spears. A Schirmer tear test was performed in the right eye. Tears were extracted from the spears by centrifugation. Tear volume was measured, pH was determined with a microelectrode, and total solids (TS) concentration was measured by refractometry.
Results—Mean ± SD pH of tears in cattle, dogs, and horses was 8.32 ± 0.14, 8.05 ± 0.26, and 7.84 ± 0.30, respectively. Tear pH was significantly higher in cattle versus dogs and horses and in dogs versus horses. Mean ± SD TS concentration in horses, cattle, and dogs was 2.04 ± 1.29 g/dL, 1.07 ± 0.60 g/dL, and 0.33 ± 0.18 g/dL, respectively. Total solids concentration was significantly higher in horses versus cattle and dogs and in cattle versus dogs. Schirmer tear test results for all animals were within the species reference range.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tear pH in all 3 species differed from that of published blood pH values and the pH of common topically administered ophthalmic medications. These fndings may have implications for variations in ocular flora and defense mechanisms, susceptibility to ocular disease, and success or comfort of topical treatment.
Objective—To follow the development of the refractive
error in the eyes of ostrich chicks from age 0 to
day 37 after hatching.
Animals—35 ostrich chicks.
Procedures—Spot retinoscopy was conducted to
assess refractive error in ostrich chicks. Seventy eyes
of 35 ostrich chicks were examined. Of these, 18
chicks were followed over time. At least 4 serial measurements
(at 2- to 7- day intervals) were conducted
in each of these chicks from day 1 to 37 after hatching.
Seventeen additional chicks were examined on
days 0, 3, 12, and 19 after hatching.
Results—Ostrich chicks were myopic at hatching,
with a mean ± SD refractive error of −4.47 ± 0.15
diopters (D). The refractive error rapidly decreased
during the first week of life, and by day 7 after hatching,
chicks were slightly hyperopic, with a mean
refractive error of 0.42 ± 0.12 D. After day 7, there
were no significant differences in the mean refractive
Conclusions—The development of optics in the
ostrich eye appears to be unique among animals and
is characterized by myopia at hatching, rapid onset of
emmetropia, and minimal variation in refractive error
among chicks. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:812–815)
Objective—To measure the effect of induced myopia on field trial performance in dogs.
Animals—7 Labrador Retrievers and 1 Chesapeake Bay Retriever trained in field trial competition.
Procedures—Dogs were commanded to retrieve targets at 137.2 m (150 yards). Each dog participated in 3 trials while their eyes were fitted with 0- (plano), +1.50-, or +3.00-diopter (D) contact lenses, applied in random order. Retrieval times were measured objectively, and dog performances were evaluated subjectively by masked judges.
Results—Retrieval times were significantly faster with plano lenses than with +1.50- or +3.00-D lenses, but there were no significant differences in times between +1.50- and +3.00-D lenses. Masked judges assigned the best performance scores to dogs with plano lenses and the lowest scores to dogs fitted with +3.00-D lenses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Even mild myopic defocusing had a significant negative impact on both the subjective and objective assessments of dogs' performances. Dogs with demanding visual tasks or signs of visual deterioration should be evaluated retinoscopically to determine the refractive state because they may have ametropia.
Objective—To quantitatively and qualitatively compare electroretinography (ERG) recordings in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs.
Animals—Six 6-month-old Beagles.
Procedures—A brief ERG protocol for dogs was used. Following 1-minute and subsequent 5-minute dark adaptation, mixed rod-cone responses were recorded bilaterally with a handheld multispecies ERG device with dogs in each of 3 states of consciousness: awake, sedated (dexmedetomidine and butorphanol), and anesthetized (atropine and hydromorphone, followed by propofol and midazolam and anesthetic maintenance with isoflurane). Low- and high-frequency noise levels were quantified via Fourier analysis, and the effect of consciousness state on signal amplitude, implicit time, and noise was analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA. In addition, 13 veterinary ophthalmologists who were unaware of the dogs’ consciousness states subjectively graded the ERG recording quality, and scores for each tracing were compared.
Results—ERG amplitudes were highest in awake dogs and lowest in anesthetized dogs. Implicit times were shortest in awake dogs and longest in anesthetized dogs. Differences in b-wave amplitudes and a-wave implicit times were significant. Neither low- nor high-frequency noise levels differed significantly among consciousness states. Furthermore, no significant differences were identified among observers’ scores assigned to ERG tracings.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia and sedation resulted in significant attenuation and delay of ERG responses in dogs. Chemical restraint of dogs had no consistently significant effect on low- or high-frequency noise levels or on observer perception of signal quality.
To evaluate analgesic effects and complications associated with intraorbital insertion of an absorbable gelatin hemostatic sponge (AGHS) soaked with 1% ropivacaine solution following enucleation in dogs.
20 client-owned dogs undergoing enucleation.
Dogs were randomly assigned to receive an AGHS soaked with 1% ropivacaine solution (n = 10) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control group; 10) inserted intraorbitally prior to skin closure following enucleation. Carprofen (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb]) was administered SC once after orotracheal extubation and then PO twice a day for 5 days. During the postoperative recovery period, apparent pain level was scored at various points with a modified short-form Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (score range, 0 to 19), and methadone was administered for rescue analgesia if any score was ≥ 5. After dogs returned home, owners recorded their behavior and apparent pain level for the first 3 days following enucleation.
At extubation, the median (range) pain score was significantly higher in the control group (8 [2 to 14]) versus the ropivacaine group (3 [1 to 7]). A greater proportion of dogs in the control group received methadone (7/10 vs 1/10) and had crying or attention-seeking behavior on the first day following enucleation (7/10 vs 1/10). No complications were observed in either group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Addition of intraorbital insertion of a ropivacaine-soaked AGHS to the analgesic protocol for dogs undergoing enucleation provided better analgesia than was achieved without this treatment as measured immediately and the first day after surgery, with no noted adverse effects.
To evaluate refractive state outcomes following phacoemulsification and implantation of 3 different intraocular lenses (IOLs).
A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted on 43 client-owned dogs undergoing phacoemulsification with IOL implantation.
Eyes were randomized to receive either an-vision Fo-X (n = 26), an-vision MD8 (18), or I-MED I-LENS (24) IOL. Refraction was measured 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively using streak retinoscopy by 2 examiners masked to each other’s results.
Postoperative refractive outcomes were highly correlated and not significantly different between 2 examiners for all time points (r = 0.97, 0.98, and 1.00; P = .76, .94, and .98, respectively). One week postoperatively, the refractive errors (mean ± SD) for Fo-X, MD8, and I-LENS were –0.14 ± 2.02 diopters (D), 0.97 ± 2.01 D, and 0.15 ± 2.55 D, respectively. One month postoperatively, the refractive errors were 0.35 ± 2.04 D, 0.06 ± 2.41 D, and –0.82 ± 2.20 D, respectively. Three months postoperatively, the refractive errors were –0.16 ± 2.67 D, 1.60 ± 2.99 D, and 0.59 ± 1.51 D, respectively. There were no significant differences in refractive error outcomes between Fo-X, MD8, and I-LENS at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively (P = .16; F(df=2,66)- = 1.89). However, the Fo-X was the only IOL to yield nearly emmetropic outcomes (±0.50 D) at all 3 time points.
The postoperative refractive states of dogs were not statistically different when comparing 3 types of IOLs at 3 postoperative time points, though the Fo-X was the only IOL to yield nearly emmetropic outcomes at all 3 time points.