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Abstract

Objective—To determine baseline tear pH in dogs, horses, and cattle by use of a microelectrode.

Animals—28 dogs, 24 horses, and 29 cattle.

Procedures—Under manual restraint, tears were collected from each subject's left eye with cotton spears. A Schirmer tear test was performed in the right eye. Tears were extracted from the spears by centrifugation. Tear volume was measured, pH was determined with a microelectrode, and total solids (TS) concentration was measured by refractometry.

Results—Mean ± SD pH of tears in cattle, dogs, and horses was 8.32 ± 0.14, 8.05 ± 0.26, and 7.84 ± 0.30, respectively. Tear pH was significantly higher in cattle versus dogs and horses and in dogs versus horses. Mean ± SD TS concentration in horses, cattle, and dogs was 2.04 ± 1.29 g/dL, 1.07 ± 0.60 g/dL, and 0.33 ± 0.18 g/dL, respectively. Total solids concentration was significantly higher in horses versus cattle and dogs and in cattle versus dogs. Schirmer tear test results for all animals were within the species reference range.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tear pH in all 3 species differed from that of published blood pH values and the pH of common topically administered ophthalmic medications. These fndings may have implications for variations in ocular flora and defense mechanisms, susceptibility to ocular disease, and success or comfort of topical treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure intraocular pressure (IOP) and progesterone concentrations in cats and to examine their reproductive organs to determine whether reproductive status affects IOP in cats.

Animals—75 sexually intact domestic shorthair cats scheduled to be neutered, including 28 males, 21 females not in estrus, 13 females in estrus, and 13 pregnant females.

Procedures—Applanation tonometry was conducted to measure IOP, and radioimmunoassay was used to determine progesterone concentrations. Reproductive organs were examined at time of surgery.

Results—The IOP in female cats that were in estrus was significantly higher than IOP in female cats that were not in estrus. Progesterone concentrations significantly affected IOP in pregnant cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, IOP is affected by changes in reproductive status. Such changes should be considered when interpreting tonometry results in this species. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:159–162)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantitatively and qualitatively compare electroretinography (ERG) recordings in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs.

Animals—Six 6-month-old Beagles.

Procedures—A brief ERG protocol for dogs was used. Following 1-minute and subsequent 5-minute dark adaptation, mixed rod-cone responses were recorded bilaterally with a handheld multispecies ERG device with dogs in each of 3 states of consciousness: awake, sedated (dexmedetomidine and butorphanol), and anesthetized (atropine and hydromorphone, followed by propofol and midazolam and anesthetic maintenance with isoflurane). Low- and high-frequency noise levels were quantified via Fourier analysis, and the effect of consciousness state on signal amplitude, implicit time, and noise was analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA. In addition, 13 veterinary ophthalmologists who were unaware of the dogs’ consciousness states subjectively graded the ERG recording quality, and scores for each tracing were compared.

Results—ERG amplitudes were highest in awake dogs and lowest in anesthetized dogs. Implicit times were shortest in awake dogs and longest in anesthetized dogs. Differences in b-wave amplitudes and a-wave implicit times were significant. Neither low- nor high-frequency noise levels differed significantly among consciousness states. Furthermore, no significant differences were identified among observers’ scores assigned to ERG tracings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia and sedation resulted in significant attenuation and delay of ERG responses in dogs. Chemical restraint of dogs had no consistently significant effect on low- or high-frequency noise levels or on observer perception of signal quality.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate analgesic effects and complications associated with intraorbital insertion of an absorbable gelatin hemostatic sponge (AGHS) soaked with 1% ropivacaine solution following enucleation in dogs.

ANIMALS

20 client-owned dogs undergoing enucleation.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive an AGHS soaked with 1% ropivacaine solution (n = 10) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control group; 10) inserted intraorbitally prior to skin closure following enucleation. Carprofen (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb]) was administered SC once after orotracheal extubation and then PO twice a day for 5 days. During the postoperative recovery period, apparent pain level was scored at various points with a modified short-form Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (score range, 0 to 19), and methadone was administered for rescue analgesia if any score was ≥ 5. After dogs returned home, owners recorded their behavior and apparent pain level for the first 3 days following enucleation.

RESULTS

At extubation, the median (range) pain score was significantly higher in the control group (8 [2 to 14]) versus the ropivacaine group (3 [1 to 7]). A greater proportion of dogs in the control group received methadone (7/10 vs 1/10) and had crying or attention-seeking behavior on the first day following enucleation (7/10 vs 1/10). No complications were observed in either group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Addition of intraorbital insertion of a ropivacaine-soaked AGHS to the analgesic protocol for dogs undergoing enucleation provided better analgesia than was achieved without this treatment as measured immediately and the first day after surgery, with no noted adverse effects.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure the effect of induced myopia on field trial performance in dogs.

Animals—7 Labrador Retrievers and 1 Chesapeake Bay Retriever trained in field trial competition.

Procedures—Dogs were commanded to retrieve targets at 137.2 m (150 yards). Each dog participated in 3 trials while their eyes were fitted with 0- (plano), +1.50-, or +3.00-diopter (D) contact lenses, applied in random order. Retrieval times were measured objectively, and dog performances were evaluated subjectively by masked judges.

Results—Retrieval times were significantly faster with plano lenses than with +1.50- or +3.00-D lenses, but there were no significant differences in times between +1.50- and +3.00-D lenses. Masked judges assigned the best performance scores to dogs with plano lenses and the lowest scores to dogs fitted with +3.00-D lenses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Even mild myopic defocusing had a significant negative impact on both the subjective and objective assessments of dogs' performances. Dogs with demanding visual tasks or signs of visual deterioration should be evaluated retinoscopically to determine the refractive state because they may have ametropia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To follow the development of the refractive error in the eyes of ostrich chicks from age 0 to day 37 after hatching.

Animals—35 ostrich chicks.

Procedures—Spot retinoscopy was conducted to assess refractive error in ostrich chicks. Seventy eyes of 35 ostrich chicks were examined. Of these, 18 chicks were followed over time. At least 4 serial measurements (at 2- to 7- day intervals) were conducted in each of these chicks from day 1 to 37 after hatching. Seventeen additional chicks were examined on days 0, 3, 12, and 19 after hatching.

Results—Ostrich chicks were myopic at hatching, with a mean ± SD refractive error of −4.47 ± 0.15 diopters (D). The refractive error rapidly decreased during the first week of life, and by day 7 after hatching, chicks were slightly hyperopic, with a mean refractive error of 0.42 ± 0.12 D. After day 7, there were no significant differences in the mean refractive error.

Conclusions—The development of optics in the ostrich eye appears to be unique among animals and is characterized by myopia at hatching, rapid onset of emmetropia, and minimal variation in refractive error among chicks. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:812–815)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research