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To determine the regional composition of water and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) disaccharides of the canine meniscus.

Sample Population

52 menisci from the stifle of dogs.


Regional sections of each meniscus were weighed, dried, and reweighed to determine water content. Dried tissue specimens were subjected to enzymatic digestion. Analysis and quantification of disaccharide degradation products were performed, using high-performance liquid chromatography.


Water content was approximately 65% in polar and central regions of the canine meniscus. Water content of the central region of the lateral meniscus was significantly higher than that of the medial meniscus (P = 0.0090). Chondroitinase digestion of canine meniscal tissue yielded detectable ΔDi-HA, ΔDi-4S, and ΔDi-6S GAG disaccharides. Disaccharides specific to dermatan sulfate and chondroitin D or E sulfate were not detected. Concentrations of ΔDi-4S and ΔDi-6S were significantly greater in the lateral central region, compared with the medial central region (P = 0.0005 and 0.0002, respectively).


Water content and ΔDi-4S and ΔDi-6S concentrations were significantly lower in the central region of the medial meniscus, compared with the central region of the lateral meniscus. Reduced tissue hydration of the medial central region may have been a direct result of its overall decrease in total GAG content.

Clinical Relevance

The ability to evaluate subtle differences in tissue GAG composition by analytical measurement of their constituent disaccharides may aid in the understanding of the complex material properties of the normal and diseased meniscus, which may be applied to the study of meniscal healing and biomechanics. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:213–216)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



The objective of the study reported here was to evaluate the effects of changing velocity on stance time and ground reaction force (GRF) measurements in horses at the walk and trot.


Force plate gait analysis was used to evaluate clinically normal horses at variable velocities. Ground reaction force measurements and stance times were recorded and compared.


12 adult horses.


Data were obtained from 192 valid trials at the walk and 162 valid trials at the trot. Vertical, braking, and propulsive peak forces and impulses were measured. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were determined for velocity and stance time and all measured forces and impulses in the forelimbs and hind limbs. Trials were divided into distinct velocity ranges. Trials obtained at velocities within the established ranges were analyzed to evaluate changes in vertical, braking, and propulsive peak forces and impulses at differing speeds within the walk and trot gaits.


At the walk and trot, a significant negative correlation was found between velocity and forelimb and hind limb stance times. Velocity and stance time were significantly correlated with many of the GRF and impulse measurements. Velocity was significantly correlated with vertical and braking forces in the hind limbs at the walk, with vertical force in the forelimbs at the trot, and with braking force in the forelimbs and hind limbs at the trot. Velocity and stance time correlated significantly with forelimb and hind limb vertical impulses. Forelimb and hind limb stance times decreased significantly as velocity increased. Hind limb braking force increased and forelimb and hind limb vertical impulses decreased significantly as walk velocity increased. Forelimb braking force increased significantly between velocity ranges at the trot.


Results of this study confirm that a significant negative linear correlation exists between subject velocity and stance times in clinically normal horses at the walk and trot. Significant correlations were also identified between velocity and many GRF measurements, indicating that subject velocity does influence the generation of GRF measurements in horses. Variation in subject velocity should be minimized when performing force-plate analysis in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:7-11)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research