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  • Author or Editor: Roman T. Skarda x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare effects of electroacupuncture and butorphanol on hemodynamic and respiratory variables and rectal analgesia in mares after controlled rectal distention.

Animals—8 healthy mares.

Procedure—Each horse received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.01 mL/kg, IV; control treatment), butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg, IV), or 2 hours of electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoints Bladder 21, 25, and 27 on both sides of the vertebral column, Bai hui, and Stomach 36 (right side only). Order of treatments in each mare was randomized. At least 7 days elapsed between treatments. A balloon was inserted in the rectum of each mare, and controlled distention of the balloon (pressures of ≤ 220 mm Hg) was used to measure nociceptive rectal pain threshold. Rectal temperature and cardiovascular and respiratory variables were measured before (baseline) and 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after onset of each treatment.

Results—Butorphanol produced greater increases in rectal pain threshold, compared with EA (mean ± SD, 214 ± 24 vs 174 ± 35 mm Hg of balloon pressure). Electroacupuncture produced minimal cardiovascular and respiratory changes. Although clinically not important, butorphanol produced moderate significant increases in heart and respiratory rates, arterial blood pressure, and rectal temperature and decreases in arterial oxygen tension. Arterial pH, carbon dioxide tension, bicarbonate concentrations, base excess, Hct, and concentration of total solids were not significantly different from baseline values after EA, butorphanol, and control treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Electroacupuncture and butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg, IV) may provide useful rectal analgesia in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:137–144)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the analgesic, hemodynamic, and respiratory effects induced by caudal epidural administration of meperidine hydrochloride in mares.

Animals—7 healthy mares.

Procedure—Each mare received meperidine (5%; 0.8 mg/kg of body weight) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution via caudal epidural injection on 2 occasions. At least 2 weeks elapsed between treatments. Degree of analgesia in response to noxious electrical, thermal, and skin and muscle prick stimuli was determined before and for 5 hours after treatment. In addition, cardiovascular and respiratory variables were measured and degree of sedation (head position) and ataxia (pelvic limb position) evaluated.

Results—Caudal epidural administration of meperidine induced bilateral analgesia extending from the coccygeal to S1 dermatomes in standing mares; degree of sedation and ataxia was minimal. Mean (± SD) onset of analgesia was 12 ± 4 minutes after meperidine administration, and duration of analgesia ranged from 240 minutes to the entire 300-minute testing period. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, arterial blood pressures, Hct, PaO2, PaCO2, pHa, total solids and bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess were not significantly different from baseline values after caudal epidural administration of either meperidine or saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caudal epidural administration of meperidine induced prolonged perineal analgesia in healthy mares. Degree of sedation and ataxia was minimal, and adverse cardiorespiratory effects were not detected. Meperidine may be a useful agent for induction of caudal epidural analgesia in mares undergoing prolonged diagnostic, obstetric, or surgical procedures in the anal and perineal regions. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1001–1007)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine cutaneous analgesia, hemodynamic and respiratory effects, and β-endorphin concentration in spinal fluid and plasma of horses after acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA).

Animals—8 healthy 10- to 20-year-old mares that weighed between 470 and 600 kg.

Procedure—Each horse received 2 hours of acupuncture and 2 hours of PAES at acupoints Bladder 18, 23, 25, and 28 on both sides of the vertebral column as well as sham needle placement (control treatment). Each treatment was administered in a random order. At least 7 days elapsed between treatments. Nociceptive cutaneous pain threshold was measured by use of skin twitch reflex latency (STRL) and avoidance to radiant heat (≤ 50°C) in the lumbar area. Skin temperature, cardiovascular and respiratory variables, and β-endorphin concentration in spinal fluid (CSF-EN) and plasma (plasma-EN) were measured.

Results—Acupuncture and EA significantly increased STRL and skin temperature. The CSF-EN was significantly increased from baseline values 30 to 120 minutes after onset of EA, but it did not change after acupuncture and control treatments. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, arterial blood pressure, Hct, total solids and bicarbonate concentrations, base excess, plasma-EN, and results of blood gas analyses were not significantly different from baseline values after acupuncture, EA, and control treatments.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Administration of EA was more effective than acupuncture for activating the spinal cord to release β-endorphins into the CSF of horses. Acupuncture and PAES provided cutaneous analgesia in horses without adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1435–1442)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of acupuncture (AP), electroacupuncture (EA), and transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation (TCES) with high-frequency intermittent currents on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and associated cardiovascular variables in dogs.

Animals—8 healthy adult female Beagles.

Procedure—Each dog was anesthetized with isoflurane on 4 occasions, allowing a minimum of 10 days between experiments. Isoflurane MAC values were determined for each dog without treatment (controls) and after treatment with AP and EA (AP points included the Large Intestine 4, Lung 7, Governing Vessel 20, Governing Vessel 14, San Tai, and Baihui) and TCES. Isoflurane MAC values were determined by use of noxious electrical buccal stimulation. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) measured by use of pulse oximetry, esophageal body temperature, inspired and expired end-tidal isoflurane concentrations, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration, and bispectral index (BIS) were monitored. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma cortisol concentration.

Results—Mean ± SD baseline MAC of isoflurane was 1.19 ± 0.1%. Acupuncture did not significantly change MAC of isoflurane. Treatments with EA and TCES significantly lowered the MAC of isoflurane by 10.1% and 13.4%, respectively. The SpO2, heart rate, MAP, BIS, esophageal body temperature, and plasma cortisol concentration were not significantly different after AP, EA, TCES, and control treatments at any time interval.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of EA and TCES decreased MAC of isoflurane in dogs without inducing adverse hemodynamic effects. However, the reduction in isoflurane MAC by EA and TCES treatments was not considered clinically relevant. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1364–1370)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine and xylazine when used for premedication of horses undergoing general anesthesia.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—40 horses.

Procedure—Twenty horses were premedicated with medetomidine (10 µg/kg [4.5 µg/lb], IM) and the other 20 were premedicated with xylazine (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/kg], IM). Horses were then anesthetized with a combination of guaifenesin and ketamine; anesthesia was maintained with halothane. Additional doses of medetomidine or xylazine were given if horses were not sufficiently sedated at the time of anesthetic induction. After induction of anesthesia, sodium pentothal was administered as necessary to prevent limb movements. Hypotension was treated with dobutamine; hypoventilation and hypoxemia were treated with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. The quality of anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery and the quality of the transition to inhalation anesthesia were scored.

Results—Scores for the quality of the transition to inhalation anesthesia were significantly higher for horses premedicated with medetomidine than for horses premedicated with xylazine. However, other scores, recovery times, and numbers of attempts needed to achieve sternal recumbency and to stand were not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that medetomidine is suitable for premedication of horses undergoing general anesthesia. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine were similar to those of xylazine, except that the transition to inhalation anesthesia was smoother when horses were premedicated with medetomidine, rather than xylazine. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1144–1149)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association