Case Description—An 11-month-old female dog was evaluated because of a 3- to 4-day history of stranguria and hematuria.
Clinical Findings—Rectal and vaginal examination and abdominal radiography revealed a large (4 × 2 cm), firm, ovoid object in the area of the pelvic inlet, between the vagina and colon.
Treatment and Outcome—Surgical exploration revealed an abscess and moderate amount of seropurulent fluid in the left caudal abdominal quadrant. A large urethrolith (3.7 × 2.0 × 1.5 cm) was evident in the proximal portion of the urethra. The urethrolith was associated with a 3 × 1-cm area of necrosis in the ventral aspect of the proximal portion of the urethra and a 3 × 3-cm area of necrosis in the area of the bladder trigone. The necrotic areas were débrided, and the defect was repaired with an axial pattern flap constructed from the rectus abdominis muscle. During a follow-up examination 2.5 years after surgery, the dog was clinically normal with no history of urinary incontinence. During rigid cystoscopy, the ure-thral mucosa appeared grossly normal, and there was no evidence of stricture.
Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that axial pattern flaps constructed from the rectus abdominis muscle flap may be useful in reconstructing large urinary bladder and urethral defects.
Objective—To identify risk factors for development of excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) in large-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD).
Animals—58 dogs with excessive TPAs (ie, TPA ≥ 35°; case dogs) and 58 dogs with normal TPAs (ie, TPA ≤ 30°; control dogs).
Procedures—Medical records and radiographs were reviewed and owners were interviewed to identify potential risk factors for excessive TPA.
Results—Case dogs were 3 times (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 8.0) as likely to have been neutered before 6 months of age as were control dogs. Case dogs with TPA ≥ 35° in both limbs were 13.6 times (95% confidence interval, 2.72 to 68.1) as likely to have been neutered before 6 months of age as were control dogs with TPA ≤ 30° in both limbs. Case dogs were significantly younger at the onset of hind limb lameness than were control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that early neutering was a significant risk factor for development of excessive TPA in large-breed dogs with CCLD. Further research into the effects of early neutering on TPA and the pathophysiology of CCLD is warranted.