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  • Author or Editor: Rolf M. Embertson x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the association between results of endoscopic evaluation of arytenoid function (AF) and epiglottic structure (ES) in Thoroughbred yearlings and racing performance at 2 to 4 years of age.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—2,954 Thoroughbred yearlings.

Procedures—Records of yearlings that had endoscopic evaluation of the larynx between 1998 and 2001 were obtained, and results were graded by use of standardized scales. A modified Havemeyer scale (grade I, II.1, II.2, III, or IV) was used to evaluate AF; ES was graded on a scale of 0 to IV. Records were annotated if the epiglottis was subjectively short or narrow. Racing performance data were obtained from an online database.

Results—Horses with grade II.2 AF had significantly less earnings at 4 years of age, compared with earnings of horses with AF grades < II.2. Grade III AF was associated with fewer starts and less earnings at 3 and 4 years of age. No horses met the criteria for grade IV AF. Horses with ES grades > II had less earnings at 2 and 4 years of age, compared with earnings of horses with ES grades < II. A short epiglottis was associated with less earnings at 2 and 3 years of age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis suggested that yearlings with grade III AF had a decrease in athletic potential. Yearlings with grade II.2 AF, an ES grade > II, or a short epiglottis typically had decreases in racing performance. These factors should be evaluated carefully when developing purchase recommendations.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess survival-to-discharge rates of mares and foals and postoperative complications and fertility in mares following cesarean section (C-section).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—95 mares.

Procedures—Medical and breeding records of mares that underwent C-section were reviewed; signalment, surgical technique, complications, survival-to-discharge rate, and pregnancy and foaling rates were recorded and evaluated. Foaling rates in the 3 years after C-section were compared with the cumulative foaling rate before C-section.

Results—C-section was performed because of dystocia (n = 71) or concurrent maternal disease (20) or was elective (4). Overall survival-to-discharge rate was 84% (80/95) for mares and 35% (28/80) for foals. Six of 15 mares that had partial fetotomies prior to C-section did not survive. Mares that had dystocia for < 90 minutes had the fewest complications. Cumulative foaling rate before C-section was 77% (394/509). Overall foaling rate for the 3 years after C-section was 52% (30/58) and 68% (13/19) when duration of dystocia was ≥ 90 minutes and < 90 minutes, respectively, and was 31 % (9/29) for mares ≥ 16 years old. Foaling rate was significantly lower for mares bred in the same year as C-section than for mares bred in later years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Breeding in the same year as C-section, dystocia for ≥ 90 minutes before C-section, and mare age ≥ 16 years were associated with poor foaling rates. Prognosis for delivery of a live foal in years following C-section was good if duration of dystocia was < 90 minutes and the mare was < 16 years old at the time of surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine survival rate and athletic ability after nonsurgical or surgical treatment of cleft palate in horses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—55 horses with cleft palate.

Procedures—13 of the 55 horses died or were euthanized without treatment and were not included in all analyses. Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, method of diagnosis, soft or hard palate involvement, type of surgical procedure performed, postoperative complications, and survival to hospital discharge. Information on athletic ability was acquired from race records and follow-up conversations with owners, trainers, or referring veterinarians.

Results—The predominant reason for initial evaluation was milk or feed in the nostrils (60%). The diagnosis was confirmed by means of videoendoscopy of the upper portion of the airway in all cases. Most cases involved the soft palate only (92.7%). Twenty-six of the 55 (47.3%) horses underwent surgical repair, and 12 of these had dehiscence at the caudal edge of the soft palate. Among potential racehorses, 14 of 33 had surgery. Of these, 12 of 14 survived to discharge and 2 horses raced. Among potential racehorses, 10 of 33 were discharged without surgery and 2 of these raced. Among nonracehorses, 12 of 22 underwent surgery and 11 survived to discharge. All horses that were discharged and for which follow-up information was available survived to 2 years of age or older without ill thrift despite dehiscence at the caudal edge of the soft palate and continued mild nasal discharge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with cleft palate had a higher survival rate than previously reported.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association