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  • Author or Editor: Roland D. Fisch x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics of clomipramine and its principle metabolite (desmethylclomipramine) in the plasma of dogs after IV or oral administration of a single dose.

Animals—6 male and 6 female Beagles.

Procedures—Clomipramine was administered IV (2 mg/kg), PO (4 mg/kg) after food was withheld for 15 hours, and PO (4 mg/kg) within 25 minutes after dogs were fed. Plasma clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine concentrations were measured by use of a gas chromatography with mass-selection method.

Results—Time to peak plasma concentrations of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine following oral administration was 1.2 hours. For clomipramine, after IV administration, elimination half-life was 5 hours, mean residence time was 3 hours, and plasma clearance was 1.4 L/h/kg. Values for mean residence time and terminal half-life following oral administration were similar to values obtained following IV administration, and systemic bioavailability was approximately 20% for clomipramine and 140% for desmethylclomipramine, indicating fast absorption of clomipramine from the gastrointestinal tract and extensive first-pass metabolism. Administration of clomipramine with food did not alter the area under the concentration versus time curve for desmethylclomipramine but resulted in a 25% increase for clomipramine. Clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine were extensively bound (> 96%) to serum proteins. There were no significant differences in area under the concentration versus time curve between male and female dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that there should not be any clinically important differences in efficacy regardless of whether clomipramine is administered with or without food. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:74–79)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate efficacy of cyclosporine A, administered at either of 2 dosages, in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD).

Design—Multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Animals—91 dogs with AD.

Procedure—Dogs were assigned to receive placebo (30 dogs), cyclosporine at a low dosage (2.5 mg/kg [1.1 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 6 weeks; 30 dogs), or cyclosporine at a high dosage (5.0 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 6 weeks; 31 dogs).

Results—After 6 weeks, mean percentage reductions, compared with baseline scores, in scores of lesion severity were 34, 41, and 67% for dogs treated with the placebo, cyclosporine at the low dosage, and cyclosporine at the high dosage, respectively. Similarly, mean percentage reductions in pruritus scores were 15, 31, and 45%, respectively. Percentage reductions in skin lesion and pruritus scores were significantly higher for dogs given cyclosporine at the high dosage than for dogs given the placebo. Treatment efficacy was significantly associated with whether dogs had a history of seasonal AD. Percentage reductions in skin lesion and pruritus scores were high for dogs treated with cyclosporine at the highest dosage that had a history of nonseasonal AD. Dogs in all groups with seasonal AD improved during the study period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that oral administration of cyclosporine at a dosage of 5.0 mg/kg once daily is effective in reducing severity of pruritus and skin lesions in dogs with AD, especially those with nonseasonal disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:370–377)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association