Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Roger M. Batt x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine relationships between fecal consistency and colonic microstructure and absorptive function in dogs with and without nonspecific dietary sensitivity.

Animals—12 dogs with nonspecific dietary sensitivity (affected) and 9 healthy dogs (controls).

Procedure—Affected dogs were fed 4 test diets and control dogs, 3 diets for 4 weeks each in a crossover design. Fecal consistency was assessed daily. At the end of each feeding period, electrolyte and water transport were assessed, and colonic biopsy specimens were obtained for histologic examination and measurement of crypt water uptake by use of confocal microscopy.

Results—Feces were consistently looser in affected dogs. In control dogs, we detected net colonic absorption of sodium and chloride and secretion of potassium and bicarbonate. Absorption of sodium and chloride was less in affected dogs, compared with controls, indicating that electrolyte transport was disrupted in affected dogs. This disruption was accentuated during feeding of diets associated with significantly poorer fecal consistency (ie, loose feces). Fecal consistency was inversely correlated with crypt water absorption, which was reduced in affected dogs. Colonic crypts were shorter and less dense in affected dogs fed diets associated with poor fecal consistency, compared with affected dogs fed other diets or with control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Colonic transport function is a major determinant of fecal consistency in dogs. Dogs with nonspecific dietary sensitivity are particularly susceptible to diet-induced changes in absorptive function. Such changes are associated with damage to colonic microstructure, disrupted electrolyte transport, and failure to dehydrate luminal contents. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:617–622).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate intestinal permeability and absorption in healthy cats in association with diet and normal intestinal microflora.

Animals—6 healthy domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—A sugar solution containing D-xylose, 3- 0-methyl-D-glucose, L-rhamnose, lactulose, and 51Cr- EDTA was administered intragastrically to healthy cats, and urinary excretion of ingested sugars was determined 5 hours after administration. After the same cats had received metronidazole for 1 month, the study was repeated. A final study was performed while cats were maintained on a new diet differing in composition and processing.

Results—Lactulose-to-rhamnose ratios, reflecting intestinal permeability, were higher in cats, compared with values for humans or dogs, and values obtained before and after metronidazole administration (mean ± SEM; before, 0.40 ± 0.08; after, 0.45 ± 0.09) were not significantly different. Intestinal absorption also was unaltered after antibiotic administration, and the xylose-to-glucose ratio was 0.70 ± 0.03 before and 0.71 ± 0.06 after metronidazole administration. Sugar recovery did not differ significantly while cats were maintained on canned or dry food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference ranges were established for the percentage urinary recovery of orally administered D-xylose, 3-0-methyl-Dglucose, L-rhamnose, lactulose, and 51Cr-EDTA obtained after 5 hours in healthy cats. The intestines of cats appear to be more permeable than those of other species, although the normal bacterial microflora does not appear to influence the integrity or function of the feline intestine, because values obtained for the measured variables before or after antibiotic administration were not significantly different. In addition, differences were not detected when the diet was completely altered. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:111–118)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of oral administration of metronidazole on the number and species of duodenal bacteria and selective nutrients of cats.

Animals—6 healthy domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—Undiluted duodenal fluid was obtained for quantitative and qualitative bacterial culture to determine species and number of bacteria in healthy cats. Blood samples were assayed for taurine, total protein, albumin, cobalamin, and folate concentrations. Cats then were given metronidazole (20 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h) for 1 month, after which bacterial cultures and serum assays of nutrients were repeated. Nine months after cessation of antibiotic treatment, duodenal bacteria were re-evaluated and serum was assayed for total protein, albumin, cobalamin, and folate concentrations.

Results—Oral administration of metronidazole caused a significant decrease in aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts in the duodenum of healthy cats, accompanied by emergence of Streptococcus spp and Corynebacterium spp. Serum concentrations of cobalamin and albumin increased when duodenal bacterial counts were decreased, although changes in folate or taurine concentrations were not detected. Measured variables did not differ, when comparing results obtained before and 9 months after cessation of metronidazole.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of metronidazole decreased the number of aerobic bacteria and altered indigenous flora in the small bowel of cats. Normal duodenal flora appeared to be stable, because species of bacteria were reestablished by 9 months after cessation of metronidazole. Bacterial flora appeared to have an impact on nutrients, because albumin and cobalamin increased during antibiotic administration and returned to preadministration concentrations after cessation of the antimicrobial. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1106–1112)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether feeding activated charcoal, Yucca schidigera, and zinc acetate would ameliorate the frequency and odor characteristics of flatulence in dogs.

Design—In vitro screening of active agents followed by a randomized controlled trial.

Animals—8 adult dogs.

Procedure—A fecal fermentation system was used to assess the effects of activated charcoal, Yucca schidigera, and zinc acetate alone and in combination on total gas production and production of hydrogen sulfide, the primary determinant of flatus malodor in dogs. All 3 agents were subsequently incorporated into edible treats that were fed 30 minutes after the dogs ate their daily rations, and the number, frequency, and odor characteristics of flatulence were measured for 5 hours, using a device that sampled rectal gases and monitored hydrogen sulfide concentrations.

Results—Total gas production and number and frequency of flatulence episodes were unaffected by any of the agents. Production of hydrogen sulfide in vitro was significantly reduced by charcoal, Yucca schidigera, and zinc acetate by 71, 38, and 58%, respectively, and was reduced by 86% by the combination of the 3 agents. Consumption of the 3 agents was associated with a significant decrease (86%) in the percentage of flatulence episodes with bad or unbearable odor and a proportional increase in the percentage of episodes of no or only slightly noticeable odor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that activated charcoal, Yucca schidigera, and zinc acetate reduce malodor of flatus in dogs by altering the production or availability of hydrogen sulfide in the large intestine. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218: 892–896)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a noninvasive method for the in vivo assessment of flatulence in dogs.

Animals—8 adult dogs.

Procedure—Rectal gases were collected via a perforated tube held close to each dog's anus and attached to a monitoring pump fitted with a sensor that recorded hydrogen sulfide concentrations every 20 seconds. Patterns of flatulence were monitored for 14 hours after feeding on 4 days, and within- and between-dog variation was assessed over 4 hours on 4 consecutive days. Rate of hydrogen sulfide production (flatulence index) and frequency and number of emissions were evaluated as potential indicators of flatus characteristics. An odor judge assigned an odor rating to each flatulence episode, and the relationship between that rating and hydrogen sulfide concentration was determined.

Results—Flatulence patterns varied within and between dogs. Variation was most pronounced for flatulence index; mean coefficients of variance within dogs over time and between dogs on each day were 75 and 103%, respectively. Flatus with hydrogen sulfide concentrations > 1 parts per million could be detected by the odor judge, and severity of malodor was highly correlated with hydrogen sulfide concentration. Odor ratings were accurately predicted by use of the equation 1.51 × hydrogen sulfide concentration0.28.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The technique described in this report appears to provide sensitive, reliable, and relevant data and will enable further studies of the factors that influence flatulence in dogs. Use of this technique also has the potential to aid in investigations of colonic physiology and pathology. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1014–1019).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish a model for inheritance of gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE) in Irish Setters.

Animals—44 dogs of a 6-generation family of Irish Setters with GSE and 7 healthy Irish Setters.

Procedure—Phenotype of each dog was determined after oral administration of gluten in the weaning diet, using morphometric evaluation of jejunal biopsies (all generations) and measurement of small intestinal permeability by use of a lactulose-rhamnose permeation test (generations 1, 2, and 3). Overall probability for each of 4 genetic models of inheritance (autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, sex-linked recessive, and sex-linked dominant) accounting for segregation of partial villus atrophy within the entire family was calculated.

Results—The autosomal recessive model was most tenable and was 56,250 times more likely to account for segregation of partial villus atrophy than the autosomal dominant model, assuming disease prevalence of 0.8%. Both sex-linked models were untenable. These conclusions were robust to the error attached to estimation of disease prevalence. High intestinal permeability without morphometric jejunal abnormalities in 4 of 20 dogs in the 3 youngest generations suggested heterogeneity of lesions associated with GSE.

Conclusions—Genetic transmission of GSE is under the control of a single major autosomal recessive locus. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:462–468)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a colony environment predisposes healthy cats to high bacterial counts, including counts of obligate anaerobes, in the duodenum and whether increased numbers of bacteria could be found in the duodenum of cats with signs of chronic gastrointestinal tract disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—20 healthy control cats (10 from a colony environment and 10 pet cats) and 19 cats with a history of chronic gastrointestinal tract disease.

Procedure—Undiluted duodenal fluid was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed by bacteriologic culture under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Serum concentrations of cobalamin and folate were also measured.

Results—Significant differences were not detected in the numbers of bacteria found in the duodenum of cats housed in a colony environment, compared with pet cats fed an identical diet prior to sampling. All healthy cats were, therefore, combined into 1 control group. Compared with healthy cats, cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease had significantly lower counts of microaerophilic bacteria, whereas total, anaerobic, and aerobic bacterial counts were not significantly different. None of the cats with disease had total bacterial counts higher than expected from the range established in the control cats. Differences were not detected in regard to serum folate or cobalamin concentrations between diseased and healthy cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings indicated that healthy colony cats and pet cats have high numbers of bacteria in the duodenum, including high numbers of obligate anaerobes. Our findings also suggest that bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine is not a common clinical syndrome in cats with chronic nonobstructive gastrointestinal tract disease. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:48–51)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association