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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine causes of hyperphosphatasemia (high serum alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity) in apparently healthy Scottish Terriers.

Design—Prospective case-controlled study.

Animals—34 apparently healthy adult Scottish Terriers (17 with and 17 without hyperphosphatasemia).

Procedures—Serum activities for 3 isoforms (bone, liver, and corticosteroid) of ALP were measured. Concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and aldosterone were measured before and after cosyntropin administration (ie, ACTH; 5 μg/kg [2.27 μg/lb], IM). Liver biopsy specimens from 16 dogs (11 with and 5 without hyperphosphatasemia) were evaluated histologically.

Results—In dogs with hyperphosphatasemia, the corticosteroid ALP isoform comprised a significantly higher percentage of total ALP activity, compared with the percentage in dogs without hyperphosphatasemia (mean ± SE, 69 ± 5.0% and 17 ± 3.8%, respectively). In 6 dogs with hyperphosphatasemia, but none without, serum cortisol concentrations exceeded reference intervals after ACTH stimulation. Six dogs with and 15 without hyperphosphatasemia had increased concentrations of ≥ 1 noncortisol steroid hormone after ACTH stimulation. Serum ALP activity was correlated with cortisol and androstenedione concentrations (r = 0.337 and 0.496, respectively) measured after ACTH stimulation. All dogs with and most without hyperphosphatasemia had abnormal hepatocellular reticulation typical of vacuolar hepatopathy. Subjectively, hepatocellular reticulation was more severe and widespread in hyperphosphatasemic dogs, compared with that in nonhyperphosphatasemic dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperphosphatasemia in apparently healthy Scottish Terriers was most likely attributable to hyperadrenocorticism on the basis of exaggerated serum biochemical responses to ACTH administration and histologic hepatic changes, but none of the dogs had clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Administration of an N-lauroylsarcosine-derived outer membrane protein fraction of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 (sci-1) induced a protective response in calves against intrathoracic challenge exposure with the homologous serovar. Outer membrane proteins from heterologous serovars, A6 and A9, induced partial protection that was associated with their respective similarities to serovar A1 in outer membrane protein profiles derived by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Calves vaccinated with sci preparations did not have detectable neutralizing antibody to P haemolytica A1 leukotoxin. Antibodies to whole-cell antigens, carbohydrate-protein subunit antigen, and sci-1 were associated with resistance, which indicates that protein antigens shared among cell surface, carbohydrate-protein subunit, and sci preparations are immunogenic and enhance resistance to experimental challenge exposure.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research