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  • Author or Editor: Roger C. Haut x
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Abstract

Objective—To examine articular cartilage of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and distal sesamoidean impar ligament (DSIL) as well as the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) for adaptive responses to contact stress.

Sample Population—Specimens from 21 horses.

Procedure—Pressure-sensitive film was inserted between articular surfaces of the DIP joint. The digit was subjected to a load. Finite element models (FEM) were developed from the data. The navicular bone, distal phalanx, and distal attachments of the DSIL and DDFT were examined histologically.

Results—Analysis of pressure-sensitive film revealed significant increases in contact area and contact load at dorsiflexion in the joints between the distal phalanx and navicular bone and between the middle phalanx and navicular bone. The FEM results revealed compressive and shear stresses. Histologic evaluation revealed loss of proteoglycans in articular cartilage from older horses (7 to 27 years old). Tidemark advancement (up to 14 tidemarks) was observed in articular cartilage between the distal phalanx and navicular bone in older clinically normal horses. In 2 horses with navicular syndrome, more tidemarks were evident. Clinically normal horses had a progressive increase in proteoglycans in the DSIL and DDFT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Load on the navicular bone and associated joints was highest during dorsiflexion. This increased load may be responsible for microscopic changes of tidemark advancement and proteoglycan depletion in the articular cartilage and of proteoglycan production in the DSIL and DDFT. Such microscopic changes may represent adaptive responses to stresses that may progress and contribute to lameness. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:414–424)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the biomechanical properties of pantarsal arthrodesis achieved with a dorsal bone plate-alone (BPA) or pin-plate combination (PPC).

Sample Population—8 pairs of cadaver canine tarsi.

Procedure—Within a pair, 1 tarsus was arthrodesed by use of a 13-hole 3.5-mm broad dynamic compression bone plate applied to the dorsal aspect of the tarsus; the paired tarsus received an identical plate similarly applied, with the addition of an intramedullary pin filling approximately 40% of the tibial medullary canal, spanning the tibiotarsal joint. Plates were instrumented with strain gauges proximal and distal to the solid portion of the plate. Specimens were mounted on a servo-hydraulic testing machine and loaded at 20%, 40%, and 80% of body weight for 10 cycles at 1 Hz. Construct compliance, angular deformation, and plate strain were determined during the 10th cycle.

Results—PPC specimens were less compliant than BPA specimens at all loads and had significantly less angular deformation than BPA specimens at loads of 40% and 80% of body weight. Tibiotarsal gauge microstrain was significantly less in PPC specimens, compared with BPA specimens, regardless of loads. Maximal strains were 33.5% to 40.5% less in PPC than BPA specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For pantarsal arthrodesis in dogs, our results indicate that the PPC construct is biomechanically superior to the BPA construct. By improving construct stability, addition of an intramedullary pin to the traditional BPA technique may lessen implant-related complications and improve plate fatigue life. A subsequent decrease in postoperative morbidity may occur with little addition of time or complexity to the surgical procedure. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:125–131)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the bending properties of pantarsal arthrodesis constructs involving either a commercially available medial arthrodesis plate (MAP1) or a specially designed second-generation plate (MAP2) implanted in cadaveric canine limbs and evaluate the effect of calcaneotibial screw (CTS) augmentation on the structural properties of both constructs.

Sample Population—5 pairs of canine hind limbs.

Procedures—Within pairs, specimens were stabilized with an MAP1 or MAP2 and loaded to 80% of body weight, with and without CTS augmentation. Compliance, angular deformation (AD), and plate strains were compared.

Results—Construct compliance and AD did not differ between plates. Maximum plate strain was lower in the MAP2 than in the MAP1 (difference of approx 30%). Augmentation with a CTS reduced compliance, AD, and strains in MAP1 constructs but had no effect on those variables in MAP2 constructs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of lower peak strains, the MAP2 may be less susceptible to failure than the MAP1. Furthermore, CTS augmentation was unnecessary with MAP2s, which could minimize intra- and postoperative morbidity. Compared with what is known for dorsal plates, MAP2 constructs were associated with approximately 35% less AD. As a result of improved local stability, one might anticipate earlier fusion of the talocrural joint with an MAP2. In addition, plate peak strain was approximately 3.5 times lower in MAP2s than in dorsal plate constructs, which should result in greater fatigue resistance. The use of MAP2s may be a better alternative to both MAP1s and dorsal plates and could contribute to lower patient morbidity.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe a novel interlocking nail (ILN) and locking system and compare the torsional properties of constructs implanted with the novel ILN or a standard 8-mm ILN (ILN8) by use of a gap-fracture model.

Sample Population—8 synthetic specimens modeled from canine tibiae.

Procedures—An hourglass-shaped ILN featuring a tapered locking mechanism was designed. A synthetic bone model was custom-made to represent canine tibiae with a 50-mm comminuted diaphyseal fracture. Specimens were repaired by use of a novel ILN or an ILN8 with screws. Specimens were loaded for torsional measurements. Construct compliance and angular deformation were compared.

Results—Compliance of the ILN8 was significantly smaller than that of the novel ILN. Mean ± SD maximum angular deformation of the ILN8 construct (23.12 ± 0.65°) was significantly greater, compared with that of the novel ILN construct (9.45 ± 0.22°). Mean construct slack for the ILN8 group was 15.15 ± 0.63°, whereas no slack was detected for the novel ILN construct. Mean angular deformation for the ILN8 construct once slack was overcome was significantly less, compared with that of the novel ILN construct.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results of this study suggests that engineering of the locking mechanism enabled the novel hourglass-shaped ILN system to eliminate torsional instability associated with the use of current ILNs. Considering the potential deleterious effect of torsional deformation on bone healing, the novel ILN may represent a biomechanically more effective fixation method, compared with current ILNs, for the treatment of comminuted diaphyseal fractures.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare structural properties of a plate-rod combination–bone construct (PRCbc) and interlocking nail–bone construct (ILNbc) by use of an experimentally induced gap fracture in canine tibiae.

Sample Population—12 paired canine tibiae.

Procedure—Specimens were implanted with a plate-rod combination consisting of a 3.5-mm, limited-contact, dynamic-compression plate combined with an intramedullary rod or 6-mm interlocking nail. Ostectomy (removal of 10-mm segment) was performed. Paired constructs were loaded for bending, compression, or torsion measurements (4 constructs/group). Compliance was determined by fitting regression lines to the load-position curves at low (initial compliance) and high (terminal compliance) loads.

Results—Bending compliances did not differ significantly between constructs. For the ILNbc, initial compliance was greater than terminal compliance in compression and torsion. Initial compliance and terminal compliance for the PRCbc were similar in compression and torsion. Initial compliance in compression and torsion was greater for the ILNbc, compared with initial compliance for the PRCbc. Maximum deformations in bending and compression were similar between constructs; however, maximum torsional angle was significantly greater for the ILNbc, compared with values for the PRCbc.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The study documented that for an experimentally induced gap fracture in canine tibiae, a plate-rod combination is a significantly less compliant fixation method in torsion and compression, compared with an interlocking nail. Considering the deleterious effects of torsional deformation on bone healing, a plate-rod combination may represent a biomechanically superior fixation method, compared with an interlocking nail, for the treatment of dogs with comminuted tibial diaphyseal fractures. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1536–1543)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research