Objective—To determine whether the angiotensin
converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril would lower
systemic arterial and glomerular capillary pressure
and reduce the magnitude of renal injury in a canine
model of renal insufficiency.
Animals—18 adult dogs that had renal mass reduced
by partial nephrectomy.
Procedure—After surgical reduction of renal mass
and baseline measurements, dogs in 2 equal groups
received either placebo (group 1) or enalapril (0.5
mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; group 2) for 6 months.
Results—Values for systemic mean arterial blood
pressure determined by indirect and direct measurement
after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively,
were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1.
During treatment, monthly urine protein-to-creatinine
ratios were consistently lower in group 2 than in
group 1, although values were significantly different
only at 3 months. At 6 months, significant reduction
in glomerular capillary pressure in group 2 was detected,
compared with group 1, but glomerular filtration
rate in group 2 was not compromised. Glomerular
hypertrophy, assessed by measurement of planar surface
area of glomeruli, was similar in both groups.
Glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were significantly
less in group 2, compared with group 1.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest
that inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme was
effective in modulating progressive renal injury, which
was associated with reduction of glomerular and systemic
hypertension and proteinuria but not glomerular
hypertrophy. Inhibition of angiotensin converting
enzyme may be effective for modulating progression
of renal disease in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:321–327)
Objective—To determine whether topical application of
a 10% fipronil solution would control signs of flea allergic
dermatitis in cats housed under natural conditions.
Design—Multicenter open clinical trial.
Animals—42 client-owned cats with flea allergic dermatitis.
Procedures—Study cats along with all other cats and
dogs living in the same houses were treated with
10% fipronil solution topically on days 0, 30, and 60.
Flea counts and clinical assessments were performed
on study cats on days 0, 14, 30, 60, and 90.
Results—Percentage reductions in geometric mean
flea counts on days 14, 30, 60, and 90, compared with
day-0 geometric mean count, were 75, 73, 85, and
94%, respectively. Pruritus score was significantly
improved at each examination after day 0, and pruritus
was reduced or eliminated in 31 of 40 (78%) cats at
the final examination. Similarly, scores for severity of
miliary dermatitis and alopecia were significantly
improved at each examination, except for alopecia
score on day 14. Overall treatment efficacy, assessed
on day 90, was excellent for 28 (70%) cats, good for 6
(15%), moderate for 3 (7.5%), and poor for 3 (7.5%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that monthly topical application of fipronil is effective
for treatment of flea allergic dermatitis in cats
housed under natural conditions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine whether omeprazole oral
paste administered at a dosage of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg
(0.23 or 0.45 mg/lb), PO, every 24 hours would effectively
prevent the recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses
in race training.
Procedures—Horses with gastric ulcers were treated
with omeprazole at a dosage of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb),
PO, every 24 hours for 28 days. Horses in the dose
selection portion of the study were sham dose treated
or received 0.5 or 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for an additional 28 days. Horses in
the dose confirmation portion of the study were sham
dose treated or received 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for an additional 28 days. Gastric
ulcers were scored before and after the preventive
phase of the study (day 28 to day 56) via gastroscopy,
and ulcer scores were compared.
Results—Sham–dose-treated horses and horses
receiving 0.5 mg of omeprazole/kg had significantly
higher ulcer scores than did horses receiving 1 mg of
omeprazole/kg. There was a significant difference
between the proportion of horses receiving 1 mg of
omeprazole/kg (38/48 [79%]) that remained ulcer free
and the proportion of sham–dose-treated horses
(7/44 [16%]) that remained ulcer free.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Omeprazole
oral paste administered at a dosage of 1 mg/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for 28 days was effective for prevention
of recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses in race
training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1685–1688)
Objective—To determine the minimal effective
dosage of omeprazole oral paste for the prevention of
naturally occurring ulcers in horses starting race training.
Procedure—Horses in the dose selection portion of
the study were sham dose treated or received 1 mg
(0.45 mg/lb) or 2 mg (0.9 mg/lb) of omeprazole/kg,
PO, every 24 hours for 28 days or 4 mg of omeprazole/
kg (1.8 mg/lb; loading dose), PO, every 24 hours
for 4 days, then 1 or 2 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for 24 days. Horses in the dose confirmation
portion of the study were sham dose treated
or received 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO, every 24
hours for 28 days. Gastric ulcer scores at the beginning
and end of the study were compared.
Results—Sham–dose-treated horses had significantly
higher ulcer scores than did horses treated with any
of the omeprazole dosages evaluated. Among horses
treated with omeprazole, there was no significant
interaction of dose (1 or 2 mg/kg) and loading dose;
therefore, the lowest effective dose (1 mg/kg) was
evaluated in the dose confirmation portion of the
study. In the dose confirmation study, 4 of 39 (10%)
sham–dose-treated horses remained ulcer free,
which was significantly different from the proportion
of horses (31/38 [82%]) receiving 1 mg of omeprazole/
kg that remained ulcer free.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that omeprazole administered at a dosage of
1 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 28 days was effective
for prevention of gastric ulcers in horses starting race
training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1681–1684)
Objective—To compare efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—253 client-owned horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.
Procedures—Horses were treated with firocoxib (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg [2 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 14 days. Physical examinations and lameness evaluations were performed prior to treatment and after 7 and 14 days. Clinical improvement was defined as a reduction of at least 1 lameness grade or a combined reduction of at least 3 points in scores for pain during manipulation or palpation, joint swelling, joint circumference, and range of motion.
Results—Proportion of horses clinically improved on day 14 for the firocoxib group (104/123 [84.6%]) was not significantly different from the proportion for the phenylbutazone group (103/119 [86.6%]). Proportion of horses that were improved on day 14 was significantly greater for horses treated with firocoxib than for horses treated with phenylbutazone with regard to score for pain on manipulation or palpation (P = 0.028), joint circumference score (P = 0.026), and range of motion score (P = 0.012), but not for overall lameness score or joint swelling score. No direct treatment-related adverse effects were detected during the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that overall clinical efficacy of a paste formulation of firocoxib in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis was comparable to efficacy of a paste formulation of phenylbutazone.