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  • Author or Editor: Roberto Alva x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether omeprazole oral paste administered at a dosage of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg (0.23 or 0.45 mg/lb), PO, every 24 hours would effectively prevent the recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses in race training.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—135 horses.

Procedures—Horses with gastric ulcers were treated with omeprazole at a dosage of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb), PO, every 24 hours for 28 days. Horses in the dose selection portion of the study were sham dose treated or received 0.5 or 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO, every 24 hours for an additional 28 days. Horses in the dose confirmation portion of the study were sham dose treated or received 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO, every 24 hours for an additional 28 days. Gastric ulcers were scored before and after the preventive phase of the study (day 28 to day 56) via gastroscopy, and ulcer scores were compared.

Results—Sham–dose-treated horses and horses receiving 0.5 mg of omeprazole/kg had significantly higher ulcer scores than did horses receiving 1 mg of omeprazole/kg. There was a significant difference between the proportion of horses receiving 1 mg of omeprazole/kg (38/48 [79%]) that remained ulcer free and the proportion of sham–dose-treated horses (7/44 [16%]) that remained ulcer free.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Omeprazole oral paste administered at a dosage of 1 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 28 days was effective for prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses in race training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1685–1688)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether topical application of a 10% fipronil solution would control signs of flea allergic dermatitis in cats housed under natural conditions.

Design—Multicenter open clinical trial.

Animals—42 client-owned cats with flea allergic dermatitis.

Procedures—Study cats along with all other cats and dogs living in the same houses were treated with 10% fipronil solution topically on days 0, 30, and 60. Flea counts and clinical assessments were performed on study cats on days 0, 14, 30, 60, and 90.

Results—Percentage reductions in geometric mean flea counts on days 14, 30, 60, and 90, compared with day-0 geometric mean count, were 75, 73, 85, and 94%, respectively. Pruritus score was significantly improved at each examination after day 0, and pruritus was reduced or eliminated in 31 of 40 (78%) cats at the final examination. Similarly, scores for severity of miliary dermatitis and alopecia were significantly improved at each examination, except for alopecia score on day 14. Overall treatment efficacy, assessed on day 90, was excellent for 28 (70%) cats, good for 6 (15%), moderate for 3 (7.5%), and poor for 3 (7.5%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that monthly topical application of fipronil is effective for treatment of flea allergic dermatitis in cats housed under natural conditions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:254–257)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril would lower systemic arterial and glomerular capillary pressure and reduce the magnitude of renal injury in a canine model of renal insufficiency.

Animals—18 adult dogs that had renal mass reduced by partial nephrectomy.

Procedure—After surgical reduction of renal mass and baseline measurements, dogs in 2 equal groups received either placebo (group 1) or enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; group 2) for 6 months.

Results—Values for systemic mean arterial blood pressure determined by indirect and direct measurement after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1. During treatment, monthly urine protein-to-creatinine ratios were consistently lower in group 2 than in group 1, although values were significantly different only at 3 months. At 6 months, significant reduction in glomerular capillary pressure in group 2 was detected, compared with group 1, but glomerular filtration rate in group 2 was not compromised. Glomerular hypertrophy, assessed by measurement of planar surface area of glomeruli, was similar in both groups. Glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were significantly less in group 2, compared with group 1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme was effective in modulating progressive renal injury, which was associated with reduction of glomerular and systemic hypertension and proteinuria but not glomerular hypertrophy. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme may be effective for modulating progression of renal disease in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:321–327)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the minimal effective dosage of omeprazole oral paste for the prevention of naturally occurring ulcers in horses starting race training.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—175 horses.

Procedure—Horses in the dose selection portion of the study were sham dose treated or received 1 mg (0.45 mg/lb) or 2 mg (0.9 mg/lb) of omeprazole/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 28 days or 4 mg of omeprazole/ kg (1.8 mg/lb; loading dose), PO, every 24 hours for 4 days, then 1 or 2 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 24 days. Horses in the dose confirmation portion of the study were sham dose treated or received 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 28 days. Gastric ulcer scores at the beginning and end of the study were compared.

Results—Sham–dose-treated horses had significantly higher ulcer scores than did horses treated with any of the omeprazole dosages evaluated. Among horses treated with omeprazole, there was no significant interaction of dose (1 or 2 mg/kg) and loading dose; therefore, the lowest effective dose (1 mg/kg) was evaluated in the dose confirmation portion of the study. In the dose confirmation study, 4 of 39 (10%) sham–dose-treated horses remained ulcer free, which was significantly different from the proportion of horses (31/38 [82%]) receiving 1 mg of omeprazole/ kg that remained ulcer free.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that omeprazole administered at a dosage of 1 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 28 days was effective for prevention of gastric ulcers in horses starting race training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1681–1684)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—253 client-owned horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

Procedures—Horses were treated with firocoxib (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg [2 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 14 days. Physical examinations and lameness evaluations were performed prior to treatment and after 7 and 14 days. Clinical improvement was defined as a reduction of at least 1 lameness grade or a combined reduction of at least 3 points in scores for pain during manipulation or palpation, joint swelling, joint circumference, and range of motion.

Results—Proportion of horses clinically improved on day 14 for the firocoxib group (104/123 [84.6%]) was not significantly different from the proportion for the phenylbutazone group (103/119 [86.6%]). Proportion of horses that were improved on day 14 was significantly greater for horses treated with firocoxib than for horses treated with phenylbutazone with regard to score for pain on manipulation or palpation (P = 0.028), joint circumference score (P = 0.026), and range of motion score (P = 0.012), but not for overall lameness score or joint swelling score. No direct treatment-related adverse effects were detected during the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that overall clinical efficacy of a paste formulation of firocoxib in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis was comparable to efficacy of a paste formulation of phenylbutazone.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association