Objective—To determine the adsorptive capability of di-tri-octahedral smectite (DTOS) on Clostridium perfringens alpha, beta, and beta-2 exotoxins and equine colostral antibodies.
Sample Population—3 C perfringens exotoxins and 9 colostral samples.
Procedures—Alpha, beta, and beta-2 exotoxins were individually co-incubated with serial dilutions of DTOS or bismuth subsalicylate, and the amount of toxin remaining after incubation was determined via toxin-specific ELISAs. Colostral samples from healthy mares were individually co-incubated with serial dilutions of DTOS, and colostral IgG concentrations were determined via single radial immunodiffusion assay.
Results—Di-tri-octahedral smectite decreased the amount of each C perfringens exotoxin in co-incubated samples in a dose-dependent manner and was more effective than bismuth subsalicylate at reducing exotoxins in vitro. Decreases in the concentration of IgG were detected in samples of colostrum that were combined with DTOS at 1:4 through 1:16 dilutions, whereas no significant decrease was evident with DTOS at the 1:32 dilution.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Di-tri-octahedral smectite effectively adsorbed C perfringens exotoxins in vitro and had a dose-dependent effect on the availability of equine colostral antibodies. Results suggested that DTOS may be an appropriate adjunctive treatment in the management of neonatal clostridiosis in horses. In vivo studies are necessary to fully assess the clinical efficacy of DTOS treatment.
Objective—To determine the percentage of broodmares
and foals that shed Clostridium perfringens in
their feces and classify the genotypes of those isolates.
Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.
Animals—128 broodmares and their foals on 6
Procedures—Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriologic
cultures were performed on feces collected 3 times
from broodmares and foals. All isolates of C perfringens
Results—Clostridium perfringens was isolated from
the feces of 90% of 3-day-old foals and 64% of foals
at 8 to 12 hours of age. A lower percentage of broodmares
and 1- to 2-month-old foals shed C perfringens
in their feces, compared with neonatal foals. Among
samples with positive results, C perfringens type A
was the most common genotype identified (85%); C
perfringens type A with the β2 toxin gene was identified
in 12% of samples, C perfringens type A with the
enterotoxin gene was identified in 2.1% of samples,
and C perfringens type C was identified in < 1% of
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clostridium
perfringens was identified from the feces of all but 6
foals by 3 days of age and is likely part of the normal
microflora of neonatal foals. Most isolates from
broodmares and foals are C perfringens type A; thus,
the clinical relevance of culture results alone is questionable.
Clostridium perfringens type C, which has
been associated with neonatal enterocolitis, is rarely
found in the feces of horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc